Sebeos' History



The Iranian troops came and faced them from the plain area. They released a multitude of bowmen who emptied their [86] quivers shooting at them and piercing all the men and horses with their arrows. The horses, which were tied to mangers at the entrances to the tents, became frightened and trampled on all the tents and army. The enemy broke through the fortification and fell upon the army causing incredible destruction. [The Byzantines] broke through at one spot, some on foot, others mounted on the kicking horses, and fled. T'eodos Xorhxorhuni fortified himself in the fortress, while that evening [the Iranians] settled into [the Byzantines'] campsite. The next morning [the Iranians] dispatched a messenger telling them to quit the fortress and depart with all their baggage and equipment. They agreed to do so. On the third day [the Byzantines] opened the city gates and all departed as had been agreed. But the Iranian commander summoned T'eodos Xorhxorhuni and told him: "I do not have the authority to release you without a royal command. Rather [I must] have you taken to court. I shall write to the king all the good things about you, how you labored so sincerely and loyally to betray [the Byzantine] troops into our hands; how you came into [Iranian] service willingly." And he did write such things and had him taken to court. King Xosrov received [T'eodos] affectionately, arranging a stipend and money for clothing for him from the treasury. Subsequently, however, as there was a suspicion of treachery about him, he [87] ordered him killed. Now the fortress-keeper residing at Angegh fortress assembled his troops and went in person deeper into the countryside which he subjugated [g75].

After this there was another battle in the Basen area. [The Iranian commander] struck at and chased the Byzantines who fled back to their own country. He took the cities of Angegh, Gaylatus, Ergina, and the city of Tsxmkert in Dara. Receiving a command from the king, he departed.


Chapter 23.

Xosrov sends a large force to Asorestan under the command of Erhazman Xorheam, and [another army] to Armenia under Ashtat Yeztayar accompanied by the emperor Theodosius. Erhazman Xorheam subdues all of Mesopotamia. Ashtat wars with the Byzantines and subjugates the district of Karin. Shahen battles with the Byzantines and is victorious. The inhabitants of Karin are deported to Ahmatan Shahastan. Death(s) of the u>Kat'oghikoi. Shahen takes Caesarea, and Vasak Artsruni is killed.

King Xosrov left Dara and again released his troops. Once more he called up another multitude of soldiers, dispatching a large and extremely powerful army to the Asorestan area commanded by Xorheam, called Erhazman. [Xosrov] commanded them as follows: "Whomever comes into [my] service, receive [88] with affection and keep in peace and prosperity; but kill with the sword whomever resists and makes war." He sent Ashtat Yeztayar with a large army (including emperor Theodosius, called Maurice's son) to Armenia. Xorheam took a multitude of soldiers and went to Asorestan, reaching Syrian Mesopotamia where he besieged and battled with the city of Edessa. Because of the multitude of the troops and the success of [the Iranian] battles, and because [the besieged] had no hope of salvation from any quarter, [the Edessans] spoke of peace requesting an oath so that [the Iranians] would not ruin the city. They opened the city gates and submitted. Similarly Amida, T'ela [g76], Resaina (Rhashayenay) and all the cities of Syrian Mesopotamia voluntarily submitted and were kept in peace and prosperity. [The Iranian troops then] went to the city of Antioch which also submitted voluntarily together with all the surrounding] cities and their inhabitants, escaping from the sword of Phocas.

Now Ashtat Yeztayar came to the borders of Armenia in the 18th year of the reign. The Byzantine army was assembled in the district of Basen and again frightfully attacked him. A great battle took place in Du and Ordru. The Byzantine army struck and was defeated with great destruction. Many men died in the battle, and there was no counting the number of corpses on the plain. [Ashtat] pursued them as [89] far as the city of Satala and then he himself encamped around the city of Karin with which he began to fight. [The inhabitants] resisted somewhat from within causing no small casualties to those outside. But then the emperor Theodosius came forward and said [to the inhabitants]: "I am your king," whereupon they consented and opened [the gates]. The principal men of the city emerged and were presented to him, then returned to the city and convinced them that he was indeed Maurice's son, Theodosius. After this [the inhabitants] opened the gates and submitted. [Ashtat] set up guards there and then went and captured the city of Hashteank', Dzit'arhich, and Satala, Arhistia and Nicopolis, and then departed. Then Shahen the Patgosapan arrived, passed by the city of Karin, and Shahrayeanapet came to Dwin, ostan of the marzpanate. Now Shahen went and encountered the Byzantine troops in the district of Karin. Engaging in battle, he struck them with the sword, putting them to flight and chasing them from the land.

Now in the 21st year of his reign [A.D. 611] king Xosrov ordered [Shahen] to move the inhabitants of the city of Karin and settle them in Ahmatean shahastan. The venerable aged kat'oghikos was among those led into captivity, together with all the Church vessels. He died there. His body was brought [g77] [back to Armenia] to the village of Awan and the church which [90] he himself had built. That same year the venerable kat'oghikos Abraham died. He was succeeded on the patriarchal throne by Kumitas, bishop of Taron who was from the village of Aghts' awan. During his tenure the construction of the church of saint Gregory was completed.

In the 20th year of king Xosrov [610], Shahen raided through the western areas, going to Cappadocian Caesarea. Now while the Christian inhabitants of the city arose and departed, the Jews went before [Shahen] and submitted. He remained in that city for one year. [The Iranians] seized Vasak Artsruni, son of Sahak nahapet of the Artsrunids, and crucified him opposite the city gate. Despite the fact that he had wrought much carnage among the Iranian troops, nonetheless, all the Iranian troops mourned him because of his bravery and manliness and because he was a powerful and tall youth. [They mourned] especially because he had been nourished and trained among them. That is what became of him.


[91]

Chapter 24.

Heraclius goes to Asorestan to fight against the Iranians. The great battle near the city of Antioch in which the Byzantines were defeated. The country of Palestine submits to the Iranians. An Iranian ostikan takes up residence in Jerusalem. His murder. The great destruction of Jerusalem by the Iranians by sword and fire. The holy Cross is captured.

In that period, in the 22nd year of the reign of Xosrov [612], Heraclius gathered the troops in the area of Egypt, went by sea to Constantinople, killed the emperor Phocas and seated his son Heraclius on the throne of the kingdom, and pacified the entire country [g78].

Now as soon as Heraclius ruled [Heraclius I, 610-41], he dispatched messengers with great treasures and edicts to king Xosrov, requesting peace with great entreaties. King Xosrov, however, did not want to listen. He said: "That kingdom belongs to me, and I shall enthrone Maurice's son, Theodosius, as emperor. [As for Heraclius], he went and took the rule without our order and now offers us our own treasure as gifts. But I shall not stop until I have him in my hands." Taking the treasure, [Xosrov] commanded that his envoys be killed and he did not respond to his message.

Then Heraclius gathered his troops and encamped around the city [of Caesarea], obstructing their expeditions. After assembling troops under the direction of a certain Curator, [Heraclius] ordered [them] to be watchful, and then returned to his own place.

They besieged the city of Caesarea for one year and the Iranian troops were placed into straits regarding victuals, [92] nor was there hay for the multitude of horses. When warm summer days arrived and the area became filled with green plants, [the Iranians] set fire to the city and forcibly departed, striking at the Byzantines and pursuing them from behind. The Iranian troops then went to the land of Armenia, where they wintered.

The Iranian king quickly summoned Shahen to court and ordered him to return to the west in haste. Taking his troops in summertime, [Shahen] reached the city of Karin. He went against Melitene, took and subdued it. Then he went and united with the army of Xorheam which was in the Pisidia area and at the Ostan of Dwin.

Parseanpet Parshenazdat came and replaced Shahrayenapet; he was succeeded by Namgar Shonazp [or: Namdar Vshnasp], then by Shahrapghan. This latter fought a battle in Pars and was victorious [g79]. Then came Chrhoch Vehan [Abgaryan, p. 282 n. 378 emends this name to Erhoch Vehan.] He followed emperor Heraclius through Armenia as far as the borders of Asorestan. The battle occurred at Nineveh, in which he and all of his troops fell.

Now emperor Heraclius summoned a certain priest P'ilipikos to military service. This P'ilipikos was the son-in-law of emperor Maurice and had been in the military for a long time, [93] triumphing in battle. But then, during Maurice's reign, he took it into his head to cut his hair and to wear priestly garb, becoming a soldier in the covenant of the Church. Heraclius forcibly made him a general and dispatched him to the East with a large army. Going by way of Cappadocian Caesarea, he reached the Ayrarat district in the country of Armenia and encamped in the plain of the city of Vagharshapat. An urgent order from the [Iranian] king, entrusted to swift, fleet-footed messengers arrived [at the camp of the Iranian general in the vicinity]. With great peril [the general] forced his troops to pursue them and wipe them out without a trace. With great urgency [the Iranian troops] reached the district of Ayrarat and encamped on the bank of the Arax [river] wanting to engage in battle the next day. However, that very night P'ilippos went against them in Nig district, surrounding them from the rear of mount Aragats. [Then] he crossed through Shirak and Vanand close to the city of Karin, and arrived at his own borders.

Now because the Iranian troops were tired from such a long and dangerous journey during which many of the men and horses had died along the way, and since, therefore, [many] were on foot, they were unable to quickly pursue [the Byzantines]. [94] Rather, they stopped for a few days and then proceeded at a relaxed pace passing into Asorestan. They encamped there in the same place they had been previously, expanding both to their rlght and left. And they ravaged [lastet'an] and seized the entire country.

In that period Heraclius enthroned his son Kostandin [Constantine III, 613-41], entrusting him to the Senate and to all the grandees of the palace [g80]. He confirmed him on the throne of his kingdom. Together with his brother Theodosius, he assumed the military command, assembled a multitude of troops, and crossed into Asorestan by way of Antioch. A great battle took place in the area of Asia, and the blood of the generals coursed violently to the city of Antioch. The groupings and clashings were severe and the slaughter was great in the agitation. Both sides were worn and wearied in the fight. However, the Iranians grew stronger and pursued the fleeing Byzantines, receiving the victory, in addition to [the renown of] bravery. Yet another battle took place close to the defile leading to Cilicia. The Byzantines struck the Iranians in a front of 8,000 armed men. And they turned and fled. The Iranians grew stronger, went and took the city of Tarsus and all the inhabitants in the district of Cilicia.

[95] Then the entire country of Palestine willingly submitted to the king of kings. The remnants of the Hebrew people especially rebelled from the Christians and taking in hand their native zeal [The translation is uncertain: ew arheal i dzerhn znaxandz hayreni, perhaps "manifesting desire for a/their homeland"] wrought very damaging slaughters among the multitude of believers. Going [to the Iranians], [the Jews] united with them. At that time, the army of the king of Iran was stationed at Caesarea in Palestine. Their general was named Rhazmiozan (that is, Xorheam). He spoke with [the inhabitants of] Jerusalem so that they submit voluntarilly and be kept in peace and prosperity.

Now first [the Jerusalemites] voluntarily submitted, offering the general and the princes very great gifts, and requesting that loyal ostikans be stationed with them to preserve the city. However, several months later the entire mob of the city's young braves united [miabaneal amenayn rhamik kacharhats'n` mankunk' k'aghak'in...] and killed the Iranian king's ostikans. Then they rebelled from his service. After this [g81] a battle took place among the inhabitants of the city of Jerusalem, Jew and Christian. The multitude of the Christians grew stronger, struck at and killed many of the Jews [The pejorative satakets'in is used]. The remainder of the Jews jumped from the walls, and went to the Iranian army. Then Xorheam (who is Erhamikozan) assembled his troops [96] and went and encamped around Jerusalem and invested it, warring against it for 19 days. Digging beneath the foundations of the city, they destroyed the wall. On the l9th day [of the siege] which was the 27th day of the month of Marg [The 11th month of the Armenian calandar, corresponding to June] in the 25th year of the reign of Xosrov Apruez [615], ten days after Easter, the Iranian forces took Jerusalem and putting their swords to work for three days they destroyed [almost] all the people in the city. Stationing themselves inside the city, they burned the place down. The troops were then ordered to count the corpses. The figure reached 57,000. Thirty-five thousand people were taken alive, among whom was a certain patriarch named Zak'aria who was also custodian of the Cross. [The Iranians] sought for the life-bringing Cross and began to torment [the clerics], executing many clerics at that time. Finally [the clerics] pointed out the place where it was hidden. [The Iranians] took it into captivity and also melted all the city's silver and gold, which they took to the court of the king. Now regarding those who had been arrested, an order was issued by the king to have mercy on them, to build a city and to settle them there, establishing each person in his [former] rank/profession [karg]. He commanded that the Jews [97] be driven from the city, and the king's order was quickly implemented, with great urgency. They placed a certain archpriest named Modestos over the city. He wrote [a letter] with the following import to the country of Armenia [g82] [The main portion of chapter 25, which we omit, contains Modestos' letter to the Armenian kat'oghikos Kumitas, and the latter's response. These letters concern doctrinal matters. The translation resumes with the latter portion of chapter 25.]


The Construction of the Church of Hrhip'sime


Now in the 28th year of the reign of Xosrov Apruez [618], kat'oghikos Kumitas pulled down the chapel of saint Hrhip'sime in the city of Vagharshapat since it was a very base and gloomy construction, having been built by saint Sahak the patriarch and kat'oghikos of Armenia, son of saint Nerses.

It happened that while they were demolishing the chapel wall, unexpectedly a radiant and matchless pearl was uncovered, namely the virgin body of the blessed lady Hrhip'sime. [She had been martyred] by being torn limb from limb. Now since the venerable saint Gregory had sealed [the reliquary] with his ring, as had the venerable Sahak, kat'oghikos of Armenia, [Kumitas] did not dare to open it. He too sealed it with his own ring, and indeed he was worthy of sealing such a pearl with his ring, [it being the ring] of the third of the three [true] believers.

[98] Which is the pearl that comes not from the sea, but the pearl born from a royal line, nourished in the embrace of holiness and dedicated to God? The righteous long to behold you, and the venerable Kumitas is tenderly in love with you.

The venerable one had a height of nine palms and four fingers. The entire northern area was motivated to come to worship. Many afflicted people received healing for all kinds of pains. [Kumitas] built the church, and left the [g88] venerable [Hrhip'sime's reliquary] outdoors until the moisture of the lime in the wall had dried. Then he placed it in its abode.

[Kumitas] also raised the wooden roof of the blessed cathedral, repaired the crumbling wall and built a stone roof. This occurred in the years of Yovhank, priest of the monastery of the blessed cathedral.


[99]

Chapter 26.

Xorheam comes to Chalcedon with a large army to take Constantinople. The emperor's exhortation and gift. [The Iranians] consent to turn back. The Iranians again return to Byzantium (i Biwzandia). The great naval battle and the Iranian defeat. Xosrov's hrovartak to Heraclius. Heraclius goes against the Iranians. The battle near Tigranakert and Heraclius' arrival at Cappadocian Caesarea in triumph and with booty. He goes against Xosrov again and battles in the plain of Nineveh where the Iranians are defeated.

In that period it happened that Xorheam went to Chalcedon with his troops and encamped opposite Byzantium. He wanted to cross [the straits] and capture the capital city.

Now as soon as emperor Heraclius saw the brigand who had come to destroy his kingdom, against his will he exalted [the Iranians] as meritorious and beloved guests, and became friendly. He went before [Xorheam] with presents and gave gifts to the general and to the very great princes. [Heraclius] gave the troops salaries, and lunch and dinner for seven days. Then he boarded a boat which was in the sea, and spoke [the following words] to [the Iranian troops]: "What did you expect to accomplish by coming to this place? Could it be that you regard the sea as the land and would war with it? God, should He so will, could dry up the sea before you. But take care that you not displease God, and that He not take vengeance on you with the bottomless sea. For [God] did not give the victory to you because of your piety, but because of our impiety [g89]. Our sins did it, not your bravery. What is it that your king seeks from me that he will not make reconciliation? If he wants to destroy my kingdom let him not attempt it. For it was God who established it, and no one is capable of destroying it except (should God for some reason want to) to fulfill God's will. Furthermore [Xosrov] has said that he will [100] enthrone our emperor. Well, let him enthrone whomever he wants, and we will accept him. Now if he is seeking to avenge the blood of Maurice, God took revenge on Phocas by means of my father, Heraclius. But [Xosrov] is still thirsting for blood. When will he be satiated? The Romans could have slain him, could they not, and done away with the lordship of the Iranians, when God delivered him into our hands. On the contrary, he was shown mercy. And now I seek the same from him—reconciliation and love. I request three things besides, so hear me out. Quit subjecting the land to fire, the sword, and captivity. Rejoice in your priests [The translation is uncertain: yerets'unts'd awgut gtanek'. Perhaps, "take comfort in your seniority"], for you are not oppressed by famine nor are royal taxes being lost. Behold, I am sending a hrovartak with offerings to your king to request reconciliation from him, and [that he make] peace with me." Taking [Heraclius'] gifts, [the Iranians] were persuaded to do as he requested. Now the Iranian king received the offerings brought from the emperor, but did not dispatch the emissaries. He ordered his troops to go to Byzantium by boat. Organizing ships, he started preparing to wage naval warfare with Byzantium. A force of sailors from Byzantium arose before him, and there was a naval battle from which the Iranian forces returned humiliated. Four thousand men [101] were lost on the ships, and [the Iranians] thereafter did not attempt such a project.

In the 34th year of his reign [624] king Xosrov wrote the following hrovartak to Heraclius:

"From Xosrov, the honored of the gods, lord of every country and king, born of the great Aramazd, to Heraclius, our stupid and useless servant [g90].

"You did not want to give yourself into our service, but rather, you call yourself lord and king, and those treasures of mine which are with you, you spend, and you deceive my servants. Furthermore, having assembled troops composed of brigands, you give me no rest. Did I not, truly, exhaust the Byzantines? You claim confidence in your God, yet how was it that your troops did not save Caesarea, Jerusalem and great Antioch from my hands? And could it be that even now you do not know that land and sea has been made obedient to me. Now it is only Constantinople which I have been unable to dig up. Yet, I will forgive all your faults. Bring your wife and children and come here, and I shall give you fields, vineyards and olive-trees by which you may live; and we shall [102] look upon you affectionately. Do not deceive yourself with your vain hopes, for how can that Christ who was unable to save himself from the Jews (but was crucified instead) save you from me? For [even] if you descend to the bottom of the sea, I shall stretch forth my hands and seize you. And then you will see me under circumstances which you would rather not."

Emperor Heraclius took the hrovartak and commanded that it be read in the presence of the patriarch and the grandees. Entering the House of God, they placed the hrovartak on the altar, and prostrated themselves before the Lord, weeping bitterly, so that He see the insults with which His enemies dishonored Him.

It pleased Heraclius and all the senators to seat Heraclius' small son, Kostandos [Constantine III, 613-41], on the throne of the kingdom. Heraclius prepared himself to take his wife and go East. At that point Kostandin was even more confirmed into the royal dignity.

Then Heraclius prepared with his wife, eunuchs, and princes of the court, and celebrated Easter in Constantinople. On Easter morning he sailed to Chalcedon, commanding his [103] troops to assemble at Cappadocian Caesarea. Then he himself left Chalcedon, came to Caesarea, pitched his tent in the midst of the army and ordered all the troops to be summoned. He read the hrovartak before them and related why he had [g91] come there. Now although [the troops] were agitated by the words, nonetheless they were exceedingly happy that [Heraclius] had come among them. They wished him victory and said: "We shall live and die with you, wherever you go. May all of your enemies become dirt beneath your feet, and may we wipe them off the face of the earth of our Lord God and exterminate those people who insult Him." With 120,000 men Heraclius departed for the court of the Iranian king, travelling via the north, passing opposite the city of Karin. He reached Ayraratean Dwin, and Naxchawan, both of which he burned.

Then he went against the village of Gandzak, which he took, destroying as well the altars of the great Fire which they called Vshnasp. King Xosrov urged those of his troops in the Byzantine district to hasten and come to his aid. Yet although they organized his horses and entrusted them to [104] Shahen the Patgosapan, the army was fatigued and could not resist. [Xosrov] stored up his treasures at Ctesiphon and prepared to flee. Now the Iranian troops hurriedly reached Nisibis. Emperor Heraclius was informed that Xorheam had come to Nisibis. He took his troops and captives and turned through the secure land of Media, reaching P'aytakaran. Xosrov was informed that Heraclius had turned and reached P'aytakaran, and wanted to cross into Iberia/Georgia, via [Caucasian] Aghbania/Aghuania. He ordered his general, Shahr Varaz, to get ahead [of Heraclius]. He quickly reached Ayrarat, crossed to Gardman across from him and encamped facing [Heraclius] at the other Tigranakert. And Shahen with 30,000 troops arrived and encamped at Heraclius' rear in the awan of Tigranakert. Thus one [army] was encamped in one place, the other, at the other place, while Heraclius' army was between them [g92].

As soon as Heraclius saw that they had trapped him in the middle, he turned upon the troops at his rear, with resolute strength struck at [the Iranian general], routed him, and went through Tsghuk. He disentangled himself by going into the plain of Naxchawan through the mountains, in wintertime.

[105] Shahr Varaz and his troops, and Shahen, together with those of his men who had escaped, pursued [Heraclius]. Now the latter forded the Arax river going to the Vrnjunik' awan, and encamped in the fields there. The Iranian army caught up, but they were unable to ford the river that day. Heraclius reached Bagrewand and crossed to Apahunik', encamping in the village called Hrchmunk'. Shahr Varaz spread his troops out to Aghiovid and he himself with 6,000 select armed braves went and located in an ambuscade in the district of Archesh, so that he might pounce upon Heraclius' army in the middle of the night.

Heraclius was informed by the spies he had dispatched that Xorheam had arrived and was planning to attack him from the ambuscade. Heraclius, similarly, took select cavalrymen and horsemen and dispatched 20,000 of them on him. Reaching Aghi, he found 500 of the [Iranian] advance-guard and destroyed them. Now one of those [Iranian] cavalrymen escaped, reached Archesh and delivered to Xorheam the bad news that the enemy had come upon him and decimated the peshopa [advance-guard] troops at Aghi. Xorheam became furious with the man and ordered him bound, hand and foot, saying: "Up to the present, Heraclius has fled from me. Now that I have arrived with [106] such an army, should he not flee from me?" But while these very words were in his mouth, [the Byzantines] forcefully came upon them, surrounded the city on three sides and set it afire, burning to death multitudes of troops. If anyone was able to flee from it, [the Byzantines] seized and killed him. No one survived as all were consumed by the awful fire. Shahr Varaz, however, did escape seated on a horse which [g93] swam. Thus did he escape to those troops of his which he had assembled in the district of Aghiovit.

Now Heraclius took the loot and booty of their army and returned in great triumph reaching the area of Caesarea. Shahr Varaz hurried after him. But because the army was fatigued, he thought to go by way of a number of districts to rest and organize the troops. They went into the area of Asia where they spread out and stopped.

Then Heraclius took his forces and returned to the country of Armenia, crossing through Shirak, reaching the ford of the Arax river, crossing it to the awan of Vardanakert, and entering the district of Gogovit. Rhoch Vehan and the Iranian troops thought that they had fled. Now he travelled to Her and the district of Zarewand heading straight toward Ctesiphon against Xosrov. Once he had entered the borders of [107] the district of Atrpatakan, news finally reached Rhoch Vehan who took his troops and pursued him to the city of Naxchawan. Thus he went hurriedly, day and night until he approached him. [Heraclius] went to the far side of Zarasp mountain in the country of Asorestan while [the Iranians] pursued him. [The Byzantines] turned west, and went to Nineveh. Other troops came to the aid of Rhoch Vehan from the king's court, the most select men of the entire kingdom. The soldiers joined together and pursued Heraclius. Heraclius drew them along as far as the plain of Nineveh and then suddenly turned back upon them with intense might. Now there was a fog over the plain, and so the Iranians were unaware that Heraclius had turned upon them until the two armies merged.

On that day the Lord so increased his compassion on Heraclius that [the Byzantines] struck them as though [the whole army] was but one man, and they killed the general in battle. [The Byzantines] surrounded the survivors and wanted to kill all of them. But [the Iranians] raised a clamour, saying: "Pious and benevolent lord, have mercy on us" [g94]. Then Heraclius commanded that they be set free. And now it was Heraclius who ordered that the country be raided.


[108]

Chapter 27.

The flight of Xosrov. Heraclius takes and burns Ctesiphon and returns to Atrpatakan. The killing of Xosrov and his forty sons. Kawad rules and makes peace with Byzantium and leaves the [Byzantine] borders.

Now the king of Iran, Xosrov, fled crossing the Tigris river to Vehkawat, severing the ties of the pontoon bridges behind him. Heraclius came and encamped close to the gates of the city of Ctesiphon and burned down all the royal mansions surrounding the city. Then he went to Atrpatakan with all his multitude and equipage, for Heraclius was terrified of Xorheam. Now Xorheam did not go to the aid of king Xosrov but instead went to where he was in the west. Then Xosrov turned to go home and commanded that a pontoon bridge be built. However, the king's women and children, the treasury, and stable of royal horses were at Vehkawat.

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