95 A. A. Jafarey, "Avestan Myths and Economy", Ancient Economy in Mythology, pp. 35-4; Boyce, Textual Sources, pp. 10-11.
96 G. M. Bongard-Levin, The Origin of the Aryans (New Delhi, 1980) pp. 47-67 describes the Indian and Iranian traditions about the northern mountains, comparing High Hara with a putative Rhip mountain in the Rig Veda, mount Meru in the later Mahabharata, and the Rhipaean mountains of Greek mythology.
97 A. J. Carnoy, "Iranian Mythology" pp. 277-78, 280 [Note: Carnoy's study is available on another page of this website, Iranian Mythology (opens in a separate window).]; Boyce, Textual Sources, pp. 11, 16-17.
98 G. M. Bongard-Levin, Origin, pp. 48-49, 67, 99-101, 115.
99 A. J. Carnoy, "Iranian Mythology", pp. 299-300. Metal imagery pervades the Avesta. According to the Bundahishn xxiv.1 when the first human Gaya Maretan ("Human Life") died, his body became molten brass, while the metals gold, silver, iron, tin, lead, quick-silver and adamant arose from his limbs. "Gold was Gaya's seed, which was entrusted to the earth and carefully preserved by Spenta Armaiti, the guardian of earth. After forty years it brought forth the first human pair, Mashya and Mashyoi", Carnoy, p. 294; A flood of molten metal will burn up evil at the end of time, ibid. p. 262; K. D. Irani, "Socioeconomic Implications", p. 68 writes: "Metallurgy, though a technology, was in its early days associated with sacred lore and the invocation of occult forces. Its techniques, particularly the manufacture of steel arms, were for obvious reasons protected by shrouds of secrecy. Some of the technology, requiring the use of furnaces, became the speciality of fire-priests in temples that maintained fire-altars—particularly the techniques of generating fires of varying intensities".
100 A. J. Carnoy, p. 302.
101 G. M. Bongard-Levin, Origin pp. 102-111, 117.
102 G. Gnoli, Zoroaster's Time and Homeland (Naples, 1980); Boyce, p. 8.
103 A. V. W. Jackson, Zoroaster the Prophet of Ancient Iran (New York, 1899), Appendix IV, pp. 182-225; J. Darmesteter, Le Zend Avesta (Paris, 1892-93) ii, pp. 5-6 identified Airyanem Vaejah with Arran, the modern Karabagh; A. J. Carnoy, pp. 307, 364 n. 15; L. H. Gray, "Blest, Abode of the (Persian)", Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, v. 2 pp. 702- 4; K. D. Irani, "Socioeconomic Implications",
pp. 60, 63.
104 Jackson, Zoroaster, pp. 40-47. Jackson (pp. 220-21) also accepted the identification of the Hyaonians with the Chionites, placed west of the Caspian Sea by Spiegel, de Lagarde, and Wilhelm. Allen associated the Hyaonians with Aia, see note 16 above.
105 A. A. MacDonnell, Vedic Mythology (N.Y. 1974; repr. of 1897 ed) p. 29. Rasa is mentioned in Rig Veda 10.121; Jackson, Zoroaster, pp. 40-41.
106 Jackson, Zoroaster, pp. 196-97 considered Daitya to be the Sped or Safed Rud (Kizil Uzen) in Azerbaijan, though Justi and Darmesteter thought it was the Kur or Arax. Boyce preferred the Jaxartes, Markwart, the Volga. See Gnoli, Zoroaster's Time and Homeland, pp. 53-57.
107 G. Widengren, "The Mithraic Mysteries in the Graeco-Roman World with Special Regard to their Iranian background", La Persia e il mondo grecoromano Accad. Naz. dei Lincei 76(1966), pp. 444-45; I. M. Diakonoff, Phyrgian (Delmar, N.Y., 1985) p. xv suggests that the western Mithra might have originally been the Urartian Haldi.
108 A. J. Carnoy, pp. 287-88.
109 Gnoli, p. 26.