1 M. Silver, "The Commodity Composition of Trade in the Argonaut Myth," in Ancient Economy in Mythology (Savage, Maryland, 1991), pp. 241-81; O. D. Lordkipanidze, "Antichnii mir i vostochnoe prichernomor'e (Kolkhida, Iberiia) [The Ancient World and the Eastern Coast of the Black Sea (Colchis, Iberia)]," in Kavkaz i sredizemnomor'e (Tbilisi, 1980), pp. 5-20.

2 Cambridge Ancient History, vol I, part 1 Prolegomena and Prehistory (Cambridge, 1970), p. 289; M. Roaf, Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East (New York, 1990), pp. 34-35; J. Mellaart in The Neolithic of the Near East (London, 1975) postulated an organized trade in obsidian connecting southern Mesopotamia and Syria with deposits originating around Lake Van and possibly Ararat. His hypothesis is based on numerous artifacts dated to the 8-7th millennia B.C. deriving from these sources found throughout the Middle East.

3 For bibliography on the extensive literature on this subject see the articles in J.A.C. Greppin, ed., When Worlds Collide (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990); J. P. Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans (London, 1991), pp. 278-84.

4 For references see M. A. Hazarabedian, "A Bibliography of Armenian Folklore," Armenian Review 39(1986), pp. 33-54; A. Grigolia, "The Caucasus and the Ancient Pre-Greco-Roman Culture World," Bedi Karthlisa 34-35(1960), pp. 97-104; G. Charachidze, Promethee ou Le Caucase (Paris, 1986). Unfortunately, Charachidze's Memoire indo-europeene du Caucase (Paris, 1987) was not available to us.

5 K. Kerenyi, Gods of the Greeks (New York, 1988; repr. of 1951 ed.); W. Burkert, Greek Religion (Cambridge, Mass., 1985). See note 14 below. For a partial bibliography and appraisal of Dumezil's important works see D. S. Calonne, "Georges Dumezil and Armenian Myth," Armenian Review 44(1991), pp. 37-49.

6 C. Burney and D.M. Lang, Peoples of the Hills (New York, 1971), pp. 1-13; R. Meiggs, Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World (Oxford, 1982), pp. 39-48, 62-63; T'. Hakobyan, Hayastani patmakan ashkharhagrut'yun [The Historical Geography of Armenia] (Erevan, 1984) Cambridge Ancient History, pp. 39-46.

7 V. Hehn, Cultivated Plants and Domesticated Animals in their Migration from Asia to Europe (Amsterdam, 1976; originally published in 1885). Among plants and animals Hehn believed originated in or passed through the area of our interest are: the vine (p. 73); olive (p. 88) flax and hemp (pp. 132, 134, 151), the pea (p. 167) alfalfa (p. 306), oleander (p. 311), the rose and lily (p. 189), the violet (p. 96), crocus (p. 197), laurel and myrtle (pp. 172-75), box-tree (p. 177), cypress (p. 212), plane-tree (p. 219), almond, walnut, chestnut (p. 294), hazelnut (p. 298), pomegranate (p. 181) cherry (p. 300), peach and apricot (p. 320), orange and lemon (pp. 331, 332, 335), the cock and domesticated fowls (6th cent. B.C., pp. 241, 246, 247) the pheasant (named after the Phasis river (p. 274), the ass and mule (pp. 110-111). Hehn wrote: "Not only castration, circumcision, and the breeding of mongrel beasts, but the lopping and dwarfing of trees, and crossing of species by imping and grafting, had been early practised in Syria," pp. 324- 25.

8 T. A. Wertime and J. D. Muhly, ed. The Coming of the Age of Iron, (New Haven, 1980), pp. 17-18, 358, 434-36; W. E. D. Allen, A History of the Georgian People (N.Y., 1971; repr. of 1932 ed.), pp. 11-19. Burney and Lang, Peoples, pp. 113-15.

9 S. Piggott, "The Earliest Wheeled Vehicles and the Caucasian Evidence," Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 34 (1968), pp. 266-318; "Chariots in the Caucasus and China," Antiquity 48 (1974), pp. 16-24; and The Earliest Wheeled Transport (London, 1983) by the same author.

10 R. Drews, The Coming of the Greeks (Princeton, 1988) especially pp. 46-69, 103, 107, 112-20, 134-35, 148-49, 156-57, 178-85.

11 Recently, the linguists T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov in Indoevropeiskii iazyk i indoevropeits [The Indo-European Language and the Indo-Europeans] Parts I and II (Tbilisi, 1984) selected Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan as the likely homeland of Indo-European speakers, a hypothesis which has spawned an enormous literature (see note 3 above and also T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov, The Early History of the Indo-European Languages, Scientific American (March, 1990), pp. 110-116). An early "modern" diffusionist was J. Blumenbach (1800) who used the term "Caucasian" to designate that ethnic division of the human race with skin color varying from very light to brown. Among nineteenth century philologists promoting an Indo-European homeland in eastern Asia Minor or the Caucasus were A. V. W. Jackson and J. Darmesteter, and the naturalist V. Hehn, who wrote: "Our field-fruits and tree-fruits come from India and Persia, from Syria and Armenia; and so do our fairytales and legends, our religious systems, all primitive inventions, and fundamental technical arts" (V. Hehn, Cultivated Plants, p. 398). Among twentieth century linguists supporting variants of this position belong E. A. Speiser, A. Ungnad, I. J. Gelb (see the discussion in G. Wilhelm, The Hurrians (Wiltshire, England, 1989), pp. 2-5), the art historian R. Ghirshman, the archaeologist J. Mellaart, and historians C. Renfrew and R. Drews. This is a partial list only.

12 Stith Thompson, who created the motif index of folktales which bears his name, derived a number of his earliest types from the same myths discussed in the present study. See "The Folktale in Ancient Literature," in Stith Thompson, The Folktale (Berkeley, 1977; repr. of 1946 ed.), pp. 272-82. The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud's studies of myth include Moses and Monotheism (1939) and Totem and Taboo (1946).

13 P. Walcot, Hesiod and the Near East (Cardiff, 1966).

14 J. Bremmer, "What is a Greek Myth?" in Interpretations of Greek Mythology (London, 1987), J. Bremmer, ed., pp. 1-9; W. Burkert, "Oriental and Greek Mythology: the Meeting of Parallels," pp. 10-40 in the same volume; W. Burkert, "Oriental Myth and Literature in the Iliad," The Greek Renaissance of the Eighth Century B.C. (Stockholm, 1983), pp. 51-56.

15 S. Dalley, Myths from Mesopotamia (Oxford, 1991), pp. 39-49.


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