Maps of Syria, Mesopotamia, Armenia, and the Middle East are available on our
Chronologies are available on the Chronological Tables page.
Studies in Syriac Literature
Sultan Sahak: Founder of the Ahl-i Haqq, chapter 18 pp. 214-223.
Pagan, Christian, and Islamic Elements in the Beliefs of the Ghulat, chapter 37 pp. 419-431.
Armenian Elements in the Beliefs of the Kizilbash Kurds, chapter 38 pp. 432-447.
The Crusades: An Eastern Perspective with Emphasis on Syriac Sources
Islam and Christianity: Jihad and Holy War, chapter 2 pp. 33-53.
The East Before the Crusaders' Arrival, chapter 3 pp. 55-96.
The Crusaders Take the Offensive, chapter 10 pp. 299-339.
Antioch, chapter 11 pp. 341-380.
The Franks as Rulers, chapter 14 pp. 477-532.
The Rise of the Zangids and the Fall of Edessa, chapter 15 pp. 533-574.
The Franks and the Syrian Christians, chapter 18 pp. 657-679.
The Christians under Turkish rule, chapter 19 pp. 681-711.
Al-Kindi's Role in the Transmission of Greek Knowledge to the Arabs
Origins of the Christian Minorities in the Middle East
The Druze and Other Shiite Ghulat Sects: A Comparative Perspective
Florentine MS 299, a New Source on Ahmad ibn al-Tayyib al-Sarakhsi
"History of the Saint James Liturgy"
from Bishop Athanasius Samuel's Anaphora: The Divine Liturgy of Saint James the First Bishop of Jerusalem According to the Rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, Syrian Orthodox Church, 1967, pp. 87-91.
History of the Saint James Liturgy
"Political Zionism and Palestine"
Published on the Internet, August, 2011. This article was written by Dr. Moosa in 1969. It has remained unpublished until now.
Political Zionism and Palestine
History of Syriac Literature and Sciences, at www.syriacstudies.comFor a critical evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of this remarkable work, see Dr. Moosa's link above under Studies in Syriac Literature, Part I (especially the paragraphs in the section beginning here). Despite certain drawbacks, Patriarch Barsoum's work contains such an astounding wealth of material otherwise unavailable to Western scholars, that it almost ranks as a primary source in its own right.
In 2011 Dr. Moosa completed the first and only full English translation of the Chronicle of Michael the Great from Syriac. This enormous universal history begins with Creation and extends to Michael's own day (late 12th century). It is based on numerous sources, some of which have not survived, and on Michael's astute observations of his own era. We eagerly await its publication.
For our book review of The Maronites in History by Matti Moosa (Piscataway, NJ., 2005), click here (at Amazon.com).
Some invaluable reference works for the study of Syrian history and culture are available at Internet Archive. Many of these 19-20th century works were collectors' items until Google Books made them available as free .pdfs. They are free and also priceless.
Syriac material at Internet Archive
To download any of the items on that page, click on the item you want, then in the left hand frame of the page that invokes, click on "All Files: HTTP." From the list of files that appears, choose the .pdf or .zip version for download.
1. Search on a single word, for example: Edessa
2. Seach on two words. In this case you want to retrieve material that has BOTH words in every item retrieved. In the search box enter the words separated by either the word AND or the arithmetic symbol +For example:3. Search for material that has EITHER of the words entered. In the search box enter the words separated by either the word OR (must be all caps) or the symbol |
Edessa + Melitene
Edessa AND Melitene
[notice that there is a space between the plus sign and the words before and after it]For example:OR is of crucial importance for names that have various spellings or variants in different languages. You need to OR the variables to be thorough.
Edessa OR Melitene
Edessa | MeliteneFor example:Furthermore, since searching for a word (such as Syrian) does not pick up the plural (Syrians, in this case), you must search for both and sometimes for an entire group
Edessa OR Urha OR UrfaFor example:We must also acknowledge the hidden perils of different transliteration systems when searching. Google has various advanced search techniques, if you are an "Extremist Searcher." I like to keep the search simple. As a final useful technique, you should know about excluding material.
Syrian OR Syrians
Persia OR Persian OR Persians OR Iran OR Iranian OR Iranians
4. If you search on a term and retrieve too much data, you might want to exclude some of it. The best tool for this is the minus symbol - meaning "and not."For example:
Antioch -Arab -Islam
[notice that there is no space between the minus sign and the word to be excluded]
Herodotus' History (5th century B.C.)
The Writings of Flavius Josephus (1st century A.D.)
The Chronicle of Eusebius (4th century A.D.) and
The Canons of Eusebius (or Jerome's Chronicle)
The Chronography of Bar Hebraeus (13th century A.D.)
Another page of our site contains material about the Syrian culture-world in Remote and Classical Antiquity.