The king marvelled and praised the beliefs of the Christians. He said to the blessed one: "Ask of me what you will and I will grant it to you." The patriarch responded: "I ask three things which are easy for you to grant. Do not force Christians to abandon their faith, but leave each to his wishes. Second, do not make the liberty of the Church subject to you through taxation, take nothing from the priests or deacons. Third, wherever there are Christians in your realm, let them perform their rites fearlessly. Give this to us in writing, and my entire people will serve you."
At once [Hisham] ordered that a document be written as requested, stamped it with his own ring, and gave Yovhannes many gifts. He mustered many troops to accompany him, and sent him to Armenia with great honor. When Yovhannes arrived [home] he persecuted all the Greeks in Armenia, both overseers and soldiers. The Greeks fled so quickly that they did not have time to take their treasures with them. So they buried them in the ground, wrote a description of the hiding place, and took the information with them [g68].
The blessed patriarch, placing our country under Ishmaelite rule, then convened a meeting in Manazkert to which he summoned  At'anas, the patriarch of Syria. [The latter] sent six bishops and anathematized the Julianites and those who said things that denied Christ, Barshapuh and Gabriel, the slanderers of the Armenians and Syrians; and he brightened the Church with canonical legislation, rejecting the Chalcedonian heresy which had spread disorder in Armenia in the days of Emperor Heraclius and the kat'oghikos Ezr. [Yovhannes] established readings for the feasts of the saints James and Cyril and for all the celebrations just as Saint Gregory had done. They celebrated the feasts of the prophet David and the Apostle James on the twenty-fifth of December—a day on which others celebrate Christmas. The Harts' sharakan ("We sin in everything and do not keep Your commands, now we confess to You") was sung then, as it still is today in the service of the churches of Armenia, from 175 of the Armenian Era , to 690 A.E.  which is our day. Thus providing the land with all virtuousness, he occupied himself with doctrine and prayers. [Yovhannes] also constructed [g69] a large church in his village of Odzun (which is close to the city Lorhi) and he himself settled in a spot he had chosen for his residence, a short distance from the village.
One day, when the blessed one was at prayer, two frightful  dragons fell upon the residence of this virtuous one. When lord Yovhannes' deacon saw this, he was terrified, and clamored for the holy man's help. Lord Yovhannes made the sign of the Cross before them and the two dragons instantly turned into stone. They exist today. Water spurts from the belly of the dragons, and it is an antidote for all snake-biten folk who turn to the saint with prayers. After being patriarch for eleven years, and having lived a virtuous life, lord Yovhannes reposed in Christ.
After [Yovhannes] lord Dawit' occupied the kat'oghikosate for thirteen years [728-41]. He was from Aramunik' in the district of Kotayk'. It was lord Dawit' who moved the kat'oghikosal see from Dwin to Aramonk'. There he built a church and a residence for the patriarch, for he had been troubled by the criminal nation of Mahmet. After Dawit', lord Trdat occupied the kat'oghikosate for twenty-three years. He was from Ot'mus village, a modest, blessed man, radiant in all virtue. In the days of Trdat, the maurauding of [g70] the Ishmaelites ceased. After Trdat, another lord Trdat became kat'oghikos for three years, then lord Sion for eight years. Lord Trdat was from Drasnawor, Buoyn and lord Sion was from Bagawan. Lord Sion caused a dry spring at the foot of Mt. Sim to flow again through  his prayers.
After Emperor Leo, his son Constantine [V, 740-75] ruled. He was known as Kawalinos [Copronymus], that is "gatherer of soil." For when the Tachik army was encamped on the bank of the Halys river, Constantine ordered soil gathered and thrown into the river. When the Tachiks saw this they became terrified, thinking that the emperor's army numberless; and they fled from him. It is related that on one day he killed five lions, one after the other. He took the city of Karin. Two years later the amir Yazid rebuilt it.
After Marwan, the chief of the Ishmaelites was Abdla and then another Abdla, a foul and money-loving man, whom his people called Abdldang, that is, "father (or servant) of a penny," which is what that means in the Hagarenes' language. For he loved a penny more than he loved God. It was Abdldang who built Baghdad. He visited many ills on Armenia by [g71] tax demands and through ravaging; he placed the country into such straits that taxes were demanded from the living for the dead. The mining of silver was stopped in Armenia. The cities K'aghian, Mren, and T'alan were destroyed, 700 people were killed and 1200 were taken captive. Mushegh Mamikonean  and Samuel, with others of the Armenian azats were killed by the Ishmaelites during the days of Easter.
At this time, in the year 222 A.E. , Step'annos, the court-priest, who was recognized as an eloquent man, attained mastery of all scholarly and grammatical knowledge, with spiritual virtue. In Armenia there were select, enlightening vardapets then, [among them] lords Ep'rem, Anastas, Xach'ik, and Dawit' Horhomayets'i, and the great scholar Step'annos Siwnets'i, a pupil of Movses, whom we recalled above. Step'annos was a translator from the Greek to the Armenian language who, beyond his translations, wrote spiritual songs of sweet melody, sharakans, kts'urds (anthems), and other songs. He also wrote brief commentaries on the Gospels, on grammar, on the Book of Job and [the hymn] "Lord, that the edge of night..." (Ter et'e shrt'ants'n gisheroy) [g72].
It is said that from childhood, the blessed Step'annos was versed in the writings of holy men. Aspet Smbat, a Diophysite, was antagonistic toward Step'annos. So Step'annos left him in disagreement and went to Rome where he found a certain orthodox hermit with whom he stayed and from whom he learned. Now when Smbat heard about this, he wrote to the Byzantine emperor [informing him] that Step'annos was a heretic who anathematized the emperor's confession, and that he was  staying with a certain hermit named such-and-such. The emperor became furious and ordered Step'annos to court. But the hermit first advised him to say about himself: "I am a beggar and a wanderer." When the emperor heard this, his angry rage subsided. Becoming bold, Step'annos entreated the emperor to open the trunks of sacred writings for him. Finding there a book with golden letters containing an account of the faith, he showed it to the emperor. [The latter] upon reading it, sent Step'annos to the city of Rome to bring thence three similar books about the true faith, so that the country be converted to that religion [g73].
Now Step'annos, heedless of the emperor's order, took the books from Rome and went to the city of Dwin in order to enlighten his country with them. And lord Dawit' ordained Step'annos as bishop of Siwnik', at the request of K'urd and Babgen, princes of Siwnik'. After occupying the episcopacy for only a year, [Step'annos] was slain by a whore from Moz district. His body was taken to a chamber in Arkaz; from there they laid it to rest in the monastery of T'anahat.
The venerable Step'annos brought the writings to the bishopric of Siwnik'; three ranks for the bishops of Armenia were established.
 Now a certain cenobite named Noah (Noy), saw a vision in which Step'annos' breast was covered with blood as he stood before the Savior, saying: "Behold this, Lord, for Your judgements are righteous." Notifying the cenobites in the district about the coming wrath, he admonished them to pray.
Then behold, from On High an impenetrable darkness enveloped the borders of Moz, and the place shook for forty days. Ten thousand people were buried [in the earthquake], for which reason the place was called Vayots' Dzor [Valley of Sighs], as it still is today. For those in pain, and those who are ill [g74], there is much healing in Step'annos' relics, for those who seek the blessed man's intercession. In this world God glorifies those who glorify Him, while in the next world, He gives them the good things He has prepared, [things] "which eye has not seen, which ear has not heard, and which the heart of mankind has not experienced [I Corinthians 2, 9]."
Then by the grace of God lord Esay from the village of Eghapatrush was called to tend to the needs of his people, [first] in the orders of priest and bishop and [later], worthily, as patriarch for thirteen years. After his death Ibn Dukl (Ipndokl) robbed the Church; and lord Step'annos ruled for one year, by means of numerous bribes. He was  from Ostan of the Curopalate [Dwin]. After him, lord Soghomon, a very old man from Makenots'ats' monastery, ruled for one year. After him, lord Georg reigned for three years. He was from Aragatsotn and was called Xoyl Orbuk. After him lord Yovsep' ruled for eleven years. He was from Aragatsotn, from the dwelling of Saint Gregory [g75].
Leo [IV, the Khazar, 775-80] wore the crown after Emperor Constantine, and following Leo were Constantine [VI, 780-97] and his mother Irene [(Erhine), regent 780-90, 792-97]. In these days there came a halt to the use of images in Rome.
[At Rome] they observed a large marble coffin, were astonished by it, and ordered that it be opened. They found written in [the coffin]: "What use it is to conceal me, for in the days of Constantine and his mother Irene, I will see the sun again." After a joint reign of ten years, Constantine deposed his mother and ruled alone for seven years. But then the mother seized the son, gouged his eyes out and herself reigned for five years. After her, Nicephorus [I (Nikip'or) 802-811] reigned. In his time two Ishmaelite brothers, Sahak and Yovsep' underwent martyrdom in Christ in the city of Karin, on the fifteenth of [the sixth month of the Armenian calendar] Arats'. After Nicephorus, Michael [I (Mik'ayel), Rhangabe 811-13] ruled;  and in his days a severe general famine occurred. On one day, 3,000 people were found dead in the city of Karin. Leo [V, the Armenian, 813-30] ruled after Michael. He threw down the images and built Biwzu and Arkadupolis.
Now fifty-four years after the immolation of the Armenian [g76] princes in Naxchawan, Ashot Bagratuni became the marzpan of Armenia, ruling for seventeen years, He was succeeded by Smbat for twenty-two years, Ashot Msaker, twenty years, and Ashot's son Smbat, who was called Ablabas, for thirty-five years. The latter built the lavishly ornamented blessed chapel (k'awaran) at Erazgawors, which is presently called Shirakawan.
Now after Abdlay, the kingdom of the Ishmaelites was led by Mahadi, Muse, Aharon, Sahamad; then by Mahmun, Abusahak Mahmet, and Aharon.
After Yovsep', lord Dawit' from the village of Kakagh in Mazaz, was kat'oghikos for twenty-five years; after him, lord Yovhannes from the village of Ovayk' in Kotayk', for twenty-two years. In the seventh year of his reign, some slanderers from his House began to utter accursed things  about the blessed man. These blabbers were tortured to death just like those who were with the bishop of Jerusalem, Narcissus (Narkesos). After Yovhannes, lord Zak'aria from Dzag village in Kotayk' ruled [854-76], on one and the same day being entrusted with everything: the deaconhood, the priesthood and the kat'oghikosate [g77]. This holy and virtuous man was kat'oghikos for twenty-two years.
In these days a certain criminal and God-hating man named Ja'far (Jap'r) rose to the head of the Ishmaelites. He was very envious of Christ and charmed many into apostasy, while torturing to death those who did not accept. He wrought much evil in the lands under his rule, and especially in Armenia, through killings and enslavements. For he had sent an ostikan named Apuset' who had come and captured the prince of Taron, Bagarat, and many other people. Now when the inhabitants of the Xut' mountains, called Sasun, heard about this affair, they came and killed Apuset'. When Ja'far was informed of this, he became furious, and sent to Armenia a commander named Bugha, a Turk, a wily and criminal man. Bugha came and ravaged Armenia through treachery and wars and led away many people to Samara in captivity, taking Smbat asparapet of Armenia to Ja'far. Now Ja'far  put Smbat into jail so that he renounce Christ; but instead of accepting the impious command, Smbat boldly confessed Christ, and was kept in that prison until he died. Smbat inherited the name "the Confessor." Many others were martyred for Christ, dying wickedly [g78].
A certain Syrian deacon named Nana was taken before Ja'far because of the renown of his preaching. [Nana] boldly confessed Christ before him. They tortured him and imprisoned him for a long time, but later he was released through the attention of God; and he wrote a commentary on the Gospel of John, with radiant words. Similarly, Step'annos, (called Kon), one of the Armenian princes, underwent martyrdom for Christ; and many denied the true God out of fear of death. [Ja'far] occasioned many other evils throughout the world, information about which you will find in the writings of T'uma and Shapuh and other authors.
In the year 194 A.E. , which is 1073 of the Syrians, Ja'far built Baghdad on the Tigris river, four days journey from Babylon. [In this time] a woman was born, and lived for thirty years not eating anything at all.
After the death of Smbat the Confessor, his son Ashot [I, 885-890] ruled the kingdom. He was viewed as  greater than all of his predecessors, since after holding the sparapetut'iwn, he was prince of princes and then [g79] received crowns from two kings, Ishmaelite and Byzantine. After Ja'far, Mahmet wore the crown, then Ahmat, Abdla, and Mahmet. The latter designated Ashot the prince of princes and then gave him a crown.
Michael wore the crown after Emperor Leo; then followed Theophilos, Michael and Basil [I (Vasil), 867-86] whom they say was from T'il village in Taron. He built the holy church of Zoravar [the General]. Basil again sent a crown to Ashot, in addition to the one the Ishmaelites had sent. Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople sent a letter to Ashot together with a piece of the Cross of the Lord. At Ashot's order, the vardapet Sahak wrote a reply to Photius, beautiful and wise.
From the fall of the Arsacid kingdom until the [establishment of the] Bagratid kingdom, 434 years had transpired.
In 334 A.E. , Ashot reigned, a God-fearing, benevolent man, an adorner of the Church, and a lover of the services of God. He embellished the churches of Armenia with great ornaments and brightness [during] thirty-two years  as prince of princes, and five years as king of Armenia. [g80] Then he passed to Christ, dying peacefully, possessing the correct doctrine. Afterwards his son Smbat ruled for twenty-four years [d. 914]. The latter underwent martyrdom in Christ at Dwin—hanged from a tree by Yusup', Apuset's son.
Lord Georg from the town of Garhni occupied the kat'oghikosate after Zak'aria. He had been taken captive by the Ishmaelites, and the princes of [Caucasian] Aghbania/Aghuania went and freed him. After him lord Mashtots' was kat'oghikos for one year. He was a blessed and virtuous man, filled with brilliance and wisdom and he dwelled on the island in lake Sewan practising great asceticism—wearing a single garment and walking barefoot—for forty years he ate no bread and drank no water. It was lord Mashtots' who established the book (which is called Mashtots' after him), gathering together all the ordered prayers and readings, arranged with an appendix which itself has all the orders of Christian faith. Reaching a ripe age, he gloriously reposed in Christ. His body was placed in the cemetary in Garhni close to the marvellous grave of Trdat. They built a beautiful church over him. Lord Yovhannes succeeded Mashtots' on the patriarchal throne [897/98]. He was lord Mashtots' pupil and relative, and he reigned for twenty-eight years. He was a wise [g81]  logical man from the town of Garhni, where the blessed patriarch Georg was from. He wrote a well-arranged history detailing the great evils wrought by the lawless people of Hagar throughout the world.
At this point I would like to repeat some things about the disintegration of unity among the wicked Hagarene people. For our Savior and God, Lord Jesus Christ said: "A kingdom divided against itself will be destroyed [Matthew 12.25; Luke 11,17]," just as theirs was, for it was split into many lordships. Thus Sop'ar ruled the land of Khurasan, while in Basra city Awalik Aput'orosp ruled, Yise's son Shaxa ruled in Palestine, the son of Apltulip in the land of Daylam [Delm] and various others in different places stirred up agitation, trying to rule over their regions by force. Therefore it was difficult to find the names of the impious [rulers]; but those who ruled unleashed upon our land wicked and inhuman ostikans, such as the beast-like Bugha and the more wanton Ap'shin, son of the criminal Apuset' who had come [to Armenia] before, and the yet more wicked corrupter [g82] Ap'shin, who killed King Smbat in Dwin. Yusup' set up as king a certain Gagik, son of Derenik, from the Artsrunid House, a good God-loving man, son of the sister of King Smbat Bagratuni. He built a royal city and church of astonishing, radiant construction on the island of Aght'amar in the Bznunik' Sea [Lake Van].
 All of these wicked overseers came to our country to loot and destroy until the kingship of the amirmunik' ended, and they were replaced by the Scythians [(Skiwt'ats'ik'), i.e., the Saljuqs]. They were not civilized folk, but barbarians who had defeated and subjugated many people and ruled themselves. Among those subdued were the Tachiks [Arabs]. But since we have not found their names recorded anywhere, we cannot register them here. Count them not among those in the Book of Life, but rather as monuments of impiety. So let us forsake them and their generals as hopeless men who have been expelled from the mansions of God.
At the beginning of the rule by the Turks, fifty men of Armenian nationality, put into straits by them [Saljuqs] went armed into the desert and came to Marash. They found a courageous man named Philaretus (P'ilartos), an Armenian, and they set him up as leader. Entering Cilicia they took the whole country where the Rhubineans of the royal house ruled [g83]. The wise vardapet called Sarkawag wrote about the reasons for [the Saljuqs'] rule up to the time of Sultan Melik'shah, and Samuel the priest repeated him. He wrote about [Malik-Shah's] father and grandfather, named Tughril bek, Mahmut and Salchuk.
But we shall return to where we left off, saying with  our spirits raised: "They were rejected by You; we are Your people and the sheep of Your flock."
After the death of Smbat Bagratuni, the Armenians were ruled by his son Ashot [II, Erkat', 915/22-929] at the order of Emperor Romanus for eight years. This was seven years after the murder of his father. After Emperor Basil, Leo ruled, then Alexander. After him was Romanus [I, Lecapenus, 919-44]. He persecuted all the Armenian clerics and priests on Byzantine territory because they did not accept the doctrine of Chalcedon. [These clerics] came to Armenia in the days of Abas, son of Smbat, and founded the monasteries of Kamrjadzor and Kaputk'ar in the Arsharunik' district and the famous monastery called Horhomos and Dprevank' in the Shirak district. In the monastery called Sanahin [g84] they built a church in the name of the most holy Mother of God in the boundaries of the city of Lorhe. Because the priests were called "Horhomots"' priests, they named a monastery in Shirak Horhomots' monastery; and to this day it is called Horhomets'i monastery.
After Romanus, Constantine, the son of Leo ruled and then Romanus [II, 959-63] and after him Nicephorus and after him Kirhzhan [John I, Tzimisces, 969-76].
 Now after Yovhannes, lord Step'annos occupied the kat'oghikosate for one year. Then lord T'eodoros for eleven years, then lord Eghise for seven years, then lord Anania of Mokk' [Anania I Mokats'i, 946-68] for twenty-two years.
In his day, there was a bishop from the Siwnik' area named Yakob who started to introduce new customs of speech and ritual, and there was another bishop, Xosrov by name, who stated: "It is not right to call the Lord's day kiwrake but [it should be] kiwrhiake, for it is Greek." He likewise said to let children's hair grow, not to cut it until it became long and formed a wall (pat), because they are so styled youths (patani). Then he ordered [that the hair] should be cut (ktrel) since [young men] are called braves (ktrich). And he said: "It is not necessary for a bishop to give gifts to the head bishop, that is, to the kat'oghikos, for the latter has no more holiness than the former, only a different title." Thus he filled the country with such foolish words; and, because of these new ways, agitation was stirred up everywhere [g85].
Lord Anania wrote advisory letters [to Yakob], urging him to stand clear of ill-advised and vain things. But he, instead of regretting what he had done, became yet more brazen, thinking himself a learned man and the others ignorant. It was necessary to write to him two and three times. Other wise vardapets  wrote to him reminding him of the details of the ritual according to Scripture. But he continued in the same sacreligious ways, denouncing everyone. Then he, Yakob, rebelled from the kat'oghikos, and holed up in the fortress of Siwnik'. The kat'oghikos excommunicated him and wrote to the lady (tikin) of Siwnik' to hand him over, for him to counsel so that he might come to repentance. But they did not hand him over and he excommunicated them. [Yakob] held the same beliefs until his death. Then lord Anania went to Siwnik' to quell the rebellion. When the princes of Siwnik' heard of the patriarch's coming, they went before him confessing their sins. They gave him a written oath that they would no longer rebell against the throne of Saint Gregory, from generation to generation. Then [Anania] ordained a certain archbishop from their line, who previously [g86] occupied the bishop's throne in Siwnik'. He did this in honor of the princes of Siwnik', ordering that a cross be borne before the archbishop of Siwnik' wherever he went.
After the death of lord Anania, his throne was occupied for one year by Vahan from Baghk'. He negotiated unity of faith with the Georgians. For this action, many bishops and devout monks who recognized and confirmed the heretical bent of his beliefs, gathered in the fortress of Ani in the kingdom of Ashot, son of Abas. He wanted to bring back the images, to restore the Chalcedonian heresy. Confirming him  a heretic, they persecuted him. United, they seated on the throne of Saint Gregory the Illuminator Step'anos, a blood relation of that holy man of God, Mashtots', from the island of Sewan. He followed [Mashtots'] conduct, and held the patriarchate for two years. But since Vahanik was still alive in Vaspurakan, some simple-minded creatures were convinced that it was wrong to consider him schismatic. Therefore anathemas arose in the midst of Armenia. But at the command of God, both of them died in the same year; and for one year the throne of the patriarchate was left unoccupied. Then, at the command of King Ashot (called "the Merciful") select men and holy bishops assembled and seated on the patriarchal throne the venerable man of God lord Xach'ik, a relative of the great patriarch lord Anania. A lover of the saints and of Christ, he bridled the tongues of schismatics with the words of doctrine. He occupied the throne for nine years and ten months. He was followed by lord Sargis [Sargis I Sewants'i, 992-1019] who ruled for twenty-four years [g87].
After Ashot, his son Smbat (called Shahnshah) ruled. During his reign the walls of Ani were topped with lofty towers and with wide places, from the Axurean river to the place known as Tsaghkots'adzor. He laid the foundation for a glorious cathedral in the same city, though he was unable to complete it, since death overtook him. He ruled for thirteen years.
 In these days the Christ-loving prince Vahram began construction of the renowned monastery called Marmashen.
After [Smbat] his brother Gagik ruled for twenty-nine years. He built the beautiful church of Saint Gregory above Tsaghkats'or, taking as a model the charming church of Saint Gregory which patriarch Nerses built. It was completed in the 1000th year of the corporealization [g88] of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in the year 447 of the Armenian Era . His wife, Queen Katramite, finished the holy cathedral which King Smbat was unable to complete, and Smbat Magistros built the desirable monastery called Bagnayr.
After Emperor Kirhzhan, Basil [II, Bulgaroctonus, 976-1025] wore the crown for fifty years, He was a kind man, especially toward the Armenian people; for he abandoned the Chalcedonian heresy and followed our true path. He came to Cilicia and was baptized by Armenians in a monastery called Paghakdziak. He gave to the monastery villages, fields, and many other things.
After lord Sargis, lord Petros [Petros I, Getadardz, 1019-1058] occupied the Armenian kat'oghikosate for thirty-nine years, After Gagik Shahnshah, his son Yovhannes ruled for twenty years.
 In his day the very distinguished Vest Sargis, after building many fortresses and churches, built the glorious monastery of Xts'konk' and a church in the name of Saint Sargis; and making Tsarak'ar monastery a fortress, he built stronger walls and glorious churches in it.
But King Yovhannes, filled with resentment for patriarch Petros, put him in jail. Then [g89] he brought and ordained as kat'oghikos in place of Petros a certain Deoskoros, head of the monastery called Sanahin.
Then the kat'oghikos of Aghbania/Aghuania, Yovsep', arrived, reconciled the king and the patriarch, and removed the kat'oghikos from prison.
As soon as the common people of the city of Ani saw that the kat'oghikos had been released from prison, they boldly pounced upon Deoskoros and tore the veil from his face on the day of the Revelation of the Lord, while he was blessing the waters; for the kat'oghikoi in those times wore veils. The people expelled him from the city with insults and placed Petros on his patriarchal throne. Sadly, Deoskoros went to his home at Sanahin. His life ended there and he was buried close to the church.
 In the days of the princeship of Zak'aria and of the leadership of Sanahin by the venerable vardapet Grigor Tuteordi, the inhabitants of the city of Ani sent to a stone-cutter in the same city of Sanahin [requesting] that he take a part of the relics of Deoskoros and send them to Ani, openly or secretly, "For it was because of him that this [g90] ruin befell us from foreigners. Perhaps he will forgive the city for the brazen behavior our fathers displayed toward him."
The stone-cutter went in the night and tried to open the grave and take some relics from it, but he was seized with great trepidation and was unable to do it. So he went to vardapet Grigor and told him what had happened, saying: "I do not dare do this deed until an assembly of the multitude of Ani's residents come here and together we seek permission from his relics." But this proposal was delayed, for no one concerned himself with the matter.
After Yovhannes, Gagik, son of Ashot ruled the kingdom for two years. Now after the death of Yovhannes also called Smbat, the princes, army, and more so the patriarch Petros met at the court of the glorious kat'oghikosate in Ani and placed as king over themselves Gagik, Yovhannes' brother's  son, sealing oaths vowing to serve him with unanimity. But Gagik had no interest in military affairs, with which the world is conducted, even though in that period it was necessary to be bold, since the rule of the Ishmaelites was in confusion because the Scythians [the Saljuqs] had attacked them, as we explained earlier. Similarly the Byzantines were in agitation [g91]. But as [Gagik] was trained from childhood in literature, he diverted himself with that. When the Byzantines learned about this, they called him to them with tricks [at the urging of] the princes who had betrayed the oath they had made [to Gagik] to keep his sovereignty over themselves and not to break the oath. And the deed that was done brought ruin to people and to the land, for the Greeks put the journeyor into exile on an island and appointed overseers to occupy his place, for one year.
Now the inhabitants of our land rose up against one another with unseemly insolence and in deception, lying and thinking up plots with which to betray each other to the emperor, accusing each other of giving aid to the Hagarenes, accusing the princes, the patriarch, and vice versa, and forcibly removing each other from their abodes. Those remaining were as though lordless. The Byzantines ruled for twenty-one years.
 After this a stormy wind moved from the south and brought a man-devouring beast which annihilated our country with fire, and especially the city of Ani for it was besieged for twenty-seven days; then finally when they took it they destroyed the inhabitants of the city of Ani. The bloody beast called Alp Arslan [(Alpaslan), 1063-1073] did not spare a single one [g92].
Then the royal wand fell from our hands. For though there were lordships in some areas, such as that of Kiwrike of the Bagratids in the city of Lorhe and the area around it, or that of the other Gagik, king of Vanand and Kars who went to the Byzantines, nonetheless, the chief [kingdom] ended in the days of Gagik; others surrendered themselves to the dragon, while others fled to the emperor of the Byzantines. And they ruined the entire country. To those who emmigrated, the Byzantines gave lands and cities in the areas of Caesarea and Sebastia, which was given to the two king Gagiks.
Now the emperor honored kat'oghikos Petros greatly and seated him on a throne of gold. As soon as [Petros] arose from the chair and wanted to go out, a bishop named Eghishe started to take the gold chair which the kat'oghikos had been sitting on. However, the court servitors did not  let him proceed. And the emperor asked the bishop: "Why did you do that?" [Eghishe] replied: "It is our law that only the [g93] kat'oghikos may sit on his chair. No one else has the right to do so." The emperor was surprised at the honor which the bishop displayed toward the kat'oghikos and he ordered the servitors to allow him to take it. And he said [to Eghishe]: "That chair is worth 7000 dahekans. Take it and keep it to honor your kat'oghikos."
On the day of the Revelation of the Lord, all the Christians and many other people assembled in the city of Trabizond for the Blessing of the Water, as is Christian custom. Because of the great envy which the Greeks had toward the Armenians, they positioned patriarch Petros and his people upstream, and themselves down the river. They did this with the thought that since the blessing of the Armenians was considered defective by them and since they were downstream, [the Greeks] would bless again that which had been blessed by the Armenians. They had trained a white dove to come, dip into the water and then rise from it; thus did they trick those unaccustomed to such things [into thinking] that the Holy Spirit had descended in the likeness of a dove.
When patriarch Petros prayed, the water began to run upstream, and an intense light arose, which dimmed the rays  of the sun. Then when their dove came to dip into the water as was the custom, suddenly an eagle swooped down [g94], snatched the dove, and flew off. All the Greeks were greatly ashamed and praised the faith of the Armenians, despite themselves.
The emperor ordered the kat'oghikos to place his throne in Sebastia and to direct his flock from there.
The patriarch remained there until his death. They buried him there in Sebastia, after a rule as kat'oghikos of thirty-nine years. After him lord Xach'ik ruled briefly.
Then gathering together in one place, the Armenians placed lord Vahram (whom they called Grigoris) on the patriarchal throne. He was from the city of Bjni, son of Grigor Magistros, grandson of Vasak the martyr, and was a learned and virtuous man.
He beseeched his father to expound grammar, since he was a scholar, and [Grigor Magistros] did this eloquently. This wonderful patriarch translated from Greek and Syrian many homilies about the martyrs of God and homilies of praise.
After some time he decided to travel to the city of Rome to revere the holy relics of the Apostles Peter and Paul;  sharing in this plan was a certain vardapet Georg. Calling his flock together, bishops and elders and princes, [Grigoris] told them about his plan. [The audience] burst into [g95] bitter tears and pleaded with him not to leave them orphans without a pastor. But he said to them: "I have made a vow, and it is impossible for me to break it. Find yourselves someone and I will ordain him to serve in my stead." That vardapet Georg, about whom we spoke above, was the messenger. When he saw that the people did not accept this decision, and kept persisting in their supplications and found no one to replace Grigoris, Georg said to the people: "Why do you beseech him so? He has taken an oath to leave and I am familiar with his plan, which cannot be changed now. Here, let him ordain me as his replacement."
As soon as the kat'oghikos heard this he was astonished and filled with wrath, for Georg had sworn to accompany him. But against his will he ordained him and set off on his way. And Georg occupied his throne.
When the blessed patriarch went to Rome, the Frank people honored him greatly. Upon fulfilling his vow, Grigoris took a boat to Constantinople, for translation-related work. But a windstorm arose at sea and it took the boat by a different  route, landing them in Egypt. Those servants he had with him were fearful, because it was a custom of the country's inhabitants to plunder storm-tossed boats and to kill survivors [g96].
The blessed patriarch Grigoris prayed and hard rains fell in Egypt, something which had never happened before. As soon as the inhabitants of the land saw this they were terrified, but the Hagarene who ruled over them was a wise man. He called his troops and said to them: "You yourselves know that in Egypt, from the beginning until now, [such] rain has not fallen; there was hail only in the time of Moses and rain, once, when Jesus came. Therefore, this is the portent of the arrival of a wonder-worker. Go, see, ask him who he is."
Searching throughout the country the troops found Grigoris with his servants, praying by the shore of the sea. They took them to the sultan. The sultan asked: "Was it on your account that these rains came?" And they replied: "Yes." And the sultan said: "What was it that you were praying for?" And they answered: "We fear the custom of the country to kill those who are tossed onto the shore, shipwrecked from the sea." And they told everything correctly. At this the sultan was amazed, lauded their faith and said to the patriarch: "Go sit on the patriarchal throne of Markos in Alexandria, and  let all Christians under my sway obey you." And he gave [g97] him many presents and entertained him like his father. And from that time on, the See of Alexandria obeyed the See of Saint Gregory [the Illuminator]. [Grigoris] lived and died there with praise, blessed in the glory of God.
King Kiwrike of the Bagratids was the son of Dawit', son of Derenik, who built the famous monasteries of Haghbat and Sanahin. When Kiwrike saw that lord Grigoris had left his throne and gone to Rome, he called to him lord Yovsep', kat'oghikos of Aghbania/Aghuania, and had him ordain lord Barsegh kat'oghikos of Armenia. They ordained as bishop of Haghbat a certain of Kiwrike's court-priests, named Sargis. And thenceforth, [Haghbat] became the throne of a bishop. After Sargis, the bishop was Georg, and after him Barsegh. Barsegh was a handsome man. When Queen T'amar of Georgia saw him, she greatly honored him because of his good looks and because his brothers were officials in the royal house.
After Barsegh [the bishop of Haghbat] was the blessed Grigoris, a relative of princes Zak'are and Iwane. He lived in our own time.
After him [the bishop] was Yovhannes, a modest and virtuous man, related to the princes of Xach'en. He tore  down the small portico at the door of the cathedral of Haghbat, reconstructing it large and beautiful, bewildering the viewer with delight [g98].
After him another Yovhannes, the sister's son of princes Zak'are and Iwane, and the previous Yovhannes' brother's son [was bishop of Haghbat]. This Yovhannes built a fortress with sturdy walls between Haghbat and Sanahin. On account of this fortress, discord arose between the two great monasteries, to the effect that it was on land belonging to Sanahin. Prince Shahnshah, Zak'are's son, avenged Sanahin since his father was buried there and he considered it their property (sep'hakan), for Haghbat was under the Georgian kings' control at that time. As soon as bishop Yovhannes died, they pulled down the walls of the fortress on orders from the T'at'ars.
After the death of bishop Yovhannes, Yovhannes (son of Aghsart'an from Matsnaberd) from the Bagratid family occupied his position for two years. He was not ordained bishop due to the confusion reigning at the time; but later he was ordained by the kat'oghikos Nerses of Aghbania/Aghuania, for the Matsnaberd area.
Kirakos Table of Contents
Historical Sources Menu
History Workshop Menu