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Jerome, Chronicle (2005) pp.188-332


[188/189]
 
Persians
Beginning of the Consuls of the
Romans Macedonians BC  
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
 
BC
    2   a Harmodius and Aristogiton killed the tyrant Hipparchus, and the courtesan Leaena their friend, when compelled with torments, lest she betray her companions, she amputated her tongue with her teeth.
28
  34   520   68th Olympiad a The Aeginatans controlled the sea 17th for 20 years until the crossing of Xerxes.
       
    3  
29
  35   519     14  
  46   508
       
        1510   15  
  47   507
       
            16   b Valerius, the colleague of the consul Brutus, died so poor that he was interred at public expense. *
  48   506
    4  
30
  36   518     17  
  49   505
1500   5   
31
  37   517   69th Olympiad
       
  66th Olympiad               18   c At Rome, after a census had been taken, there were found to be 120,000 men.
  50   504
    6   b The temple of Jerusalem is completed, when Haggai and Zechariah are prophesying among the Jews.
32
  38   516        
Of the Macedonians, Alexander, for 43 years  
    7  
33
  39   515         d Nine years after the kings were expelled, a new rank was created, that is, the dictatorship, and the Master of the Horse, who would answer to the dictator. Largius was the first Dictator, and Spurius Cassius the Master of Horse. (*)
 
    8  
34
  40   514        
 
    9    
35
  41   513        
       
  67th Olympiad  
~~~~
          19  
  1   503
    10   c After the kings had been expelled from the City, Rome was holding power barely as far as the 15th milestone. The seven kings of the Romans from Romulus until Tarquinius Superbus reigned for 240 years, or as some prefer, 243. (*)
  42   512     20   
  2   502
       
            21   
  3   501
    11  
  43   511   70th Olympiad e Hellanicus the historian, and Democritus the philosopher, and Heraclitus surnamed 'the Dark', and Anaxagoras the natural scientist are considered important.
       
       
            22  
  4   500
       
            23  
  5   499
       
            24  
  6   498
    12   
  44   510 1520   25   f Pythagoras the philosopher dies.
  7   497
        d After the kings had been expelled, first two consuls began to exist at Rome, from Brutus; then tribunes of the plebs and dictators, and then consuls again controlled the Republic for close to 464 years, until Julius Caesar, who was the first to seize sole rule, in the 183rd Olympiad.
          71st Olympiad g The Volsci destroyed Corioli. *
       
       
            26   h Aeschylus the writer of tragedies is well known.
  8   496
       
               
       
    13   
  45   509     27    i The Latins rebelled against the Romans.
  9   495
       
               
       
       
            28    l After an uprising had happened, the people of Rome, seceded from the fathers.
  10   494
                                   
[190/191]
 
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
BC  
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
 
BC
    29   a Marcius, who had captured Corioli, withdrew his army from its seige of the City (Rome) by the intervention of his mother Veturia and his wife Volumnia. *
  11   493       a Choerilus and Phrynicus are considered illustrious.
  21   483
       
               
       
       
                b Diagoras is well known, and the followers of his natural philosophy.
       
       
            4  
  22   482
  72nd Olympiad  
              c Xerxes, when he had come to Athens, burned down the city, at the time of the leadership of Callias.
  23   481
    30   b The war that was waged in Marathon, and those things that are written about Miltiades and Aristides who was surnamed the Just.
  12   492        
       
    31  
  13   491   75th Olympiad  
       
    32  
  14   490     6   d The war that was waged in Thermopylae. and the naval battle off Salamis.
  24   480
    33   c Panyasis the poet is considered illustrious.
15   489        
       
        d 300 nobles of the Fabian family slaughtered by the people of Veii. *
               
       
       
            7   e The Athenians fortify Piraeus with a wall.
25   479
        e When the Roman soldiers were besieged on mount Algidus, they were freed by the dictator Quintius Cincinnatus. *
            8   f Hieron reigns at Syracuse.
  26   478
       
        1540   9   g Aeschylus the tragedian is well known.
  27   477
       
          76th Olympiad
       
       
            10   h War in Plateia and Mycale.
  28   476
  73rd Olympiad  
            11   i After Gelon, Hieron exercises tyranny at Syracuse.
  29   475
    34   f Egypt was severed from Darius.
  16   488     12  
  30   474
1530   35    g Gelo occupied Syracuse.
  17   487     13   k Pindar the musician is considered important.
31   473
    36    h Pindar and Simonides the lyrical poets are considered notable.
      486   77th Olympiad  
       
       
            14    l Themistocles flees to the Persians.
  32 n Start of the 71st jubilee accord-
ing to the Heb-
rews.
472
        i At Rome, the Vestal Virgin Pompilia, discovered in unchastity, was buried alive.
  18         15    m Sophocles, the tragedian, first published the works of his ingenuity.
  33 471
  5th of the Persians, Xerxes son of Darius, for 20 years.
               
     
   
               
     
    1    
  19   485     16   o At Rome, the vestal virgin Sunia, discovered in unchastity, was buried alive.
  34 470
  74th Olympiad k Xerxes captures Egypt.
               
       
      l Aristides is expelled with ignominy.   20   484     17    p Sophocles and Euripides are considered important. 35   469
[192/193]
 
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
BC  
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
 
BC
  78th Olympiad  
                subsequent deeds which are reported to have been performed by them, would not have been silent about Esther.
       
        a Herodotus the historical writer is well known.
               
       
       
            3   a Sicily was ruled by the people.
  42   462
    18   b Bacchylides and Diagoras are celebrated at Athens for their superlative eloquence.
  36   468     4   b Cimon overcomes the Persians in naval and land battle near the Eurimedontis: and halts the Median war.
  43   461
       
               
       
1550   19   c Zeuxis the painter is well-known; some people judge that the so-called 'the bath of the Byzantines' is one of his paintings, many of which he made on commission. *
  37   467        
       
       
               
Of the Macedonians, Perdiccas, for 28 years.  
       
                c An eclipse of the sun happened.
 
       
          80th Olympiad  
 
        d Themistocles dies from a draught of bull's blood.
            5   d Anaxagoras dies.
  1   460
       
                e Heraclitus is considered important.
       
    20   e Socrates is born.
  38    466         f Evenus the poet is important.
       
        f A stone fell from the sky into the Aegon River.
                g Ezra the priest, notable among the Hebrews, is well-known, in whose time the high priesthood was held by Eliashib, son of Joakim, son of Jeshua, son of Jozadak. Moreover Ezra was most well-learned in the Divine Law, and an important teacher of all the Jews who had returned from captivity to Judaea.
       
  6th of the Persians, Artabanus, for 7 months, after whom, 7th, Artaxerxes, who was surnamed Long-Hand, for 40 years.
               
       
   
            6  
  2   459
   
  39    465        
       
   
               
       
   
            7  
  3   458
   
               
       
   
        1560   8  
  4   457
   
          81st Olympiad h Empedocles and Parmenides are considered most notable natural philosophers.
       
  79th Olympiad g These things were written about Esther and Mordecai: some affirm that they took place under this king, which I do not think; for Ezra, who writes that in this time Ezra and Nehemiah were returned from Babylon, and the
            9  
  5   456
    1  
  40   464         i Zeno and Heraclitus the Dark are well known.
     
       
            10    k Pherecydes the second writer of history is well known.
  6   455
       
               
       
          41    463     11    Cratinus and Plato the writers of comedies 7   454
[194/195]
 
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
BC  
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
 
BC
        are considered important.
        1570   18   permission of his master, came to Judaea from Babylon in his 20th year, and in his 32nd year restored the walls and the city. Ezra writes that the task was completed under the high priest Joiada, Joasib, who was succeeded by his own son, Jonathan, who lived in the time of Alexander of Macedon.
  14   447
        a Aristarchus the tragedian is well known.
               
       
       
               
       
        b The very famous centennial games of Rome first held.
               
       
       
               
       
    12   c 302 years from the founding of the City, the Decemvirs were created, and after one year they were ejected on account of Appius Claudius, who wished to abduct the daughter of a certain Virginius who was fighting against the Latins in Algidum. *
  8   453        
       
       
            19   a Up to this point, the divine Scriptures of the Hebrews contain annals of time: those things which happened among them after these things, we provide from the book of Maccabees, and Josephus, and from the writings of Africanus, which thereafter continued the universal history until the Roman period.
  15    446
       
               
       
       
               
       
       
               
       
  82nd Olympiad  
               
       
    13    d The Romans through ambassadors sought out laws from the Athenians, from which the Twelve Tables were inscribed.
    452        
       
       
               
       
       
            20   b The Athenians and Lacedaemonians initiate a treaty of 30 years.
  16   445
    14   e Crates the writer of comedies, and Telesilla and Bacchylides the lyric poets, are considered important: likewise, Praxilla and Cleobulina are renowned.
  10    451        
       
       
                c Herodotus was honoured for reading his books in the assembly at Athens.
       
       
               
       
       
          84th Olympiad  
       
    15   f The temple of Juno that had been at Argos burned down.
   11   450     21   d Melissus the natural philosopher is well known.
17    444
       
            22    e Euripides the tragedian is considered important, and Protagoras the sophist, whose books the Athenians burned by a public decree.
  18    443
    16   g Abaris the Hyperborean Seer is well known.
   12   449        
       
       
            23   
  19    442
  83rd Olympiad h Tribunes of the plebs and aediles created at Rome, after the consuls had been ejected.
            24   
  20    441
       
          85th Olympiad    
       
    17    i Nehemiah the Hebrew, the attendant of King Artaxerxes, with the
  13    448     25   f At Rome consuls again created.
  21   440
                      26    g Phidias makes an ivory Minerva.     22    439
[196/197]
 
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
BC  
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
 
BC
        a The Fidennates rebel against the Romans. *
          35   a The Athenians suffer in the plague.
    430
    27   b Theaetetus the mathematician is well known. Aristophanes is considered important, and Sophocles the tragic poet.
  23    438        
       
       
                b Thucydides is well known.
       
1580    28  
  24   437     36   c Pericles dies.
    429
  86th Olympiad  
          88th Olympiad  
       
        c The Campanian gens established in Italy.
            37   d Eupolis and Aristophanes, writers of comedies, are well-known.
  5   428
    29   d Democritus of Abdera, and Empedocles, and Hippocrates the doctor, Gorgias, and Hippias, and Prodicus and Zeno and Parmenides the philosophers are considered notable.
  25   436        
       
    30  
  26    435 1590   38   
    427
    31  
  27    434     39    e Fire erupted from Mount Etna.
    426
    32  
  28    433        
       
        e Socrates is celebrated for his superlative eloquence.
                f Among the Locrians, when Atlantis had been split off by an earthquake, the city became an island.
       
       
               
       
        f Ezra recalls that Nehemiah, who constructed the walls of Jerusalem, had finished the work in the 32nd year of Artaxerxes, king of the Persians. If someone should count from this point the 70 weeks (of years), written of by Daniel, which come to 490 years, he will find them fulfilled in the reign of Nero, in whose reign Jerusalem, after it had begun to be besieged, is seized in the second year of Vespasian.
            40   g Plato is born.
  8   425
       
          89th Olympiad    
       
       
          8th of the Persians, Xerxes the second, for two months. After which the 9th, Sogdianus, for seven months. To whom succeeds 10th Darius, surnamed Nothus, for 19 years.        
       
       
           
       
       
           
       
       
           
       
       
           
       
       
           
       
       
11th of the Macedonians, Archelaus for 24 years.       1   h The Lacedaemonians and Athenians strike a treaty.
   9   424
       
         
       
  87th Olympiad  
        i Eudoxus the Cnidian is considered important.
10    423
    33   g Beginning of the Peloponnesian war.
  1   432       k The Lacedaemonians found the city of Heraclea, fulfilling a sacred vow. (*)
  11    422
        h Bacchylides the song writer is well known.
             
  12    421
    34        2   431   90th Olympiad            
[198/199]
 
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
Egyptians BC  
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
Egyptians BC
    5    
13
1     420   of Darius and Parysatis, for 40 years. a In the reign of this king, it seems to me, the story which is contained in the book of Esther came to pass: of course he is the one who is called 'Ahasuerus' by the Hebrews, and 'Artaxerxes' by the LXX translators.
       
    6    
14
      419  
       
    7    
15
      418      
1
    405
1600    8    
16
      417   94th Olympiad
       
  91st Olympiad  
Egypt is severed from the Persians and Amyrtaeus the Saite reigned for 6 years.          
       
    9   a The calamity which happened to the Athenians in Sicily.
17
416      
2
    404
    10  
18
415      
3
    403
    11    
19
414      
4
    402
    12   b Alcibiades fled as a fugitive to Tisaphernes.
20
  1   413         b Dionysius exercises a tyranny at Syracuse.
14th of the Macedonians, Amyntas, for 1 year.
After whom Achoris, for 12 years.  
  92nd Olympiad
                 
    13   c Euboea secedes from the federation of the Athenians.
21
    412         c The Athenians support tyranny.  
    14  
22
    411        
       
    15    
23
    410     5   d Isocrates the orator is well known.
1
    401
    16    
24
    409        
After whom Pausanias, for 1 year.
     
  93rd Olympiad  
Of the Macedonians, Orestes, for 3 years. 2
 
            e 29th dynasty of Egypt, of the Mendesians.      
                           
    17   d Euripides dies staying with Archelaus, and Sophocles at Athens.
1
    408         f Democritus dies.
       
       
28th Dynasty of Egypt. Nepherites for 6 years.           g Pharnabazus kills Alcibiades.
       
         
         
       
1610   18     
2
  1   407         h The Anabasis of King Cyrus, about which Xenophon writes.
       
    19     
3
    406   95th Olympiad
       
  11th of the Persians, Artaxerxes, who was surnamed Mnemon, son e Dionysius exercises tyranny in Sicily.
13th of the Macedonians, Archelaus, for 4 years. 
 
 
 
          i The tyrants overthrown at Athens.
1
    400
              k The Athenians began to use 24 letters, when previously they had only had 16 letters.
       
               
       
               
       
                               

1. At this point, in mid-page in 'O', the column of Macedonian regnal years which is black up to this point suddenly turns red. This is clear evidence that the scribe copied the colours from his exemplar, and did not amend them. It also shows that the exemplar did indeed have 26 lines, because the colour change occurs at the page-break (as here) in such an exemplar, rather than in mid-page, as in 'O'.
2. This entry should be red, but is in fact black in 'O'.

[200/201]
 
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
Egyptians BC  
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
Egyptians BC
        a Xenophon the son of Gryllus, and Ctesias are considered important.
After whom Amyntas for 6 years.
             
  Nectanebis for 18 years.  
                     
   
      b Socrates drinks poison.
1
    399 1630   19    a Evagoras driven mad when he was reigning in Cyprus. 1
5
  1    387
      c Temple at Ephesus burned down again.
2
  4   398     20  
6
  2   386
1620   9    d The followers of Socrates are considered important.
3
  5    397     21   
7
    385
  96th Olympiad               99th Olympiad            
    10   e Diogenes the Cynic is well known.
4
  6   396     22   b 30th dynasty of Egypt, of the people of Sebennythos.
8
  4   384
    11   f Speusippus is considered notable.
5
    395     23  
9
  5   383
    12  
6
    394     24    
10
  6   382
        g Dionysius persists in tyranny.
After whom Argaeus for 2 years.
        25    
11
  7   381
              100th Olympiad            
    13   h The famous Carthaginian War.
1
    393     26   c The Peloponnesian cities of Helica and Bura were swallowed up in a great earthquake.
12
  8   380
  97th Olympiad               27  
13
  9   379
    14   i Eudoxus the astrologer is well known.
2
  10    392     28  
14
  10   378
       
After whom Amyntas again for 18 years.
1                      11 
    1640   29   d The Praenesti conquered by the Romans at the River Allia by Quinctius Cincinnatus. (*)
15
  11   377
    15    k The Senones Gauls occupied Rome, except for the Capitol. (*)   391                  
    16   
2
  12    390                  
            Of Egypt, Psammuthes, for 1 year.           e The Athenians made leaders of Greece.          
                                 
                  101st Olympiad            
    17    
3
  1   389     30   f Isocrates the rhetor is well known.
16
  12   376
  98th Olympiad l Plato the philosopher is well known.
After whom Nepherites for 4 months.       31  
17
  13    375
       
      32   g Plato and Xenophon, and likewise other followers of Socrates are considered important.
18
  14    374
    18    m The military tribunes began to be in place of the consuls. *
4
  1   388        
Of the Macedonians, Alexander, for 1 year.
   
       
                   
            After whom         33    
1
  15    373

(1) Diodorus 14.110.5.

[202/203]
 
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
Egyptians BC  
Persians
 
Consuls
   
Macedonians
The kingship of the Egyptians was destroyed. BC
  102nd Olympiad  
After whom Ptolemy Alorites, for 4 years.
               
Of the Macedonians, Philp, for 26 years.
 
                               
                    4    
1
  6   362
    34    
1
  16    372        
2
    361
    35     
2
  17    371   105th Olympiad            
    36     
3
  18    370     6   a Demosthenes the orator is well known.
3
    360
              Of Egypt, Teo, for 2 years.       7   b Ochus, having captured Apodasmus of the Jews, settled her deported inhabitants in Hyrcania, by the Caspian sea.
4
    359
        a Teo the king of Egypt flees to Arabia.           8  
5
  10    358
    37  
4
  1   369 1660   9  
6
  11    357
  103rd Olympiad  
After whom Perdiccas, for 6 years.
        106th Olympiad          
                    10   c Dionysius is driven from Sicily.
7
  12    356
    38   b Dionysius the king of Sicily dies in his 19th year, after whom Dionysius the younger takes possession of the kingdom.
1
    368     11    d Alexander, son of Philip and Olympias, is born.
8
  13    355
            30th Dynasty of the Egyptians. Nectanebo, for 18 years.                    
                  12    e Dion of Syracuse is murdered.
9
  14    354
                  13    f Hipparinus the son of Dionysus exercises tyranny over Syracuse.
10
  15    353
                  107th Olympiad            
1650   39   c Aristotle, during the 18th year of his life, is a hearer of Plato.
2
  1   367     14   g Erinna the poetess is well known.
11
  16    352
    40   
3
    366     15   h Ochus held Egypt, Nectanebo having been expelled into Ethiopia, in whom the kingship of the Egyptians was destroyed. Up to this point, (the narrative is according to) Manetho.
12
  17    351
  12th of the Persians, Artaxerxes, also called Ochus, for 26 years                 16  
13
  18    350
                  17  
14
  @@@@@@ 349
                               
    1    
4
    365   108th Olympiad          
  104th Olympiad d Alexander of Pherae is well-known.               18   i Ochus overthrew Sidon, and annexed Egypt to his empire.
15
       
     
5
    364 1670   19   
16
       
      e Camillus defeats the Gauls, who had made war on the Romans.
6
    363                  
                          k Demosthenes the Orator          
[204/205]
  Persians         Consuls         Macedonians BC   Persians       Consuls               Macedonians   BC
              is celebrated in the opinion of all.                   After whom Darius, 14th, son of Arsamus, for 6 years.   a Manasseh, the brother of Jad the high priest of the Jews, constructs a temple on Mount Garizin.                
    20         a The Romans defeat the Gauls.       17       346                     
    21         b Dionysius sailed to Corinth under a truce.       18       345                     
                                 1           b Alexander, fighting successfully against the Illyrians and Thracians, having destroyed Thebes, took up arms against the Persians, and at the River Granicus, overpowering the royal generals, captures the city of Sardis.       2       335
              c Plato dies, after whom Speusippus headed the Academy.                    2                 3       334
                                  3                 4       333
                                                             
   109th Olympiad d The Romans, since they had defeated the Samnites in two battles, brought all the neighbouring regions back under their own rule because they had withdrawn from her alliance.                                               
     22               19       344                               
     23               20       343                               
                                              c The Roman consul Manlius Torquatus beat his son with rods and executed him with an axe, because he had disobeyed orders by fighting against the enemy. (*)                
     24               21       342                               
     25         e Dionysus driven away to Corinth.       22       341                               
   110th Olympiad f At Rome, a survey having been carried out, there were found to be 160,000 citizens.                                               
     26               23       340    112th Olympiad                
   13th of the Persians, Arses, son of Ochus, 4 years. g Jad, high priest of the Jews, is considered important.                    4           d After the capture of Tyre, Alexander takes possession of Judaea, and being received favourably there, sacrifices victims to God, compliments the high priest of the temple with many honors, and as guardian of the holy places sends forth Andromachus, whom the Samaritans later kill: on account of which things, after returning from Egypt, Alexander put them to death with great torment, and hands over their captured city to the Macedonians to dwell in. (*)   5       332
                                             
                                             
     1         h Speusippus dies, to whom Xenocrates succeeded.       24       339                           
     2               25       338                           
1680   3                                     26       337    5             6       331
   111th Olympiad                         Of the Macedonians, Alexander, son of Philip, for 12 years, 6 months.                               
                                                                     
                                                                     
                                              6           e Alexandria founded in Egypt, in the seventh year of Alexander's reign: at which time also the Latins were subdued by the Romans.   7       330
     4                                     1       336                           
[206/207]
  The kingship of the Persians was destroyed                  
  Consuls
     
 
BC   Alexandrians       Consuls      
 
Macedo-nians
 
BC
                                                                         
                      a Alexander occupied Babylon after Darius had been killed, in whom the kingship of the Persians was destroyed.          In Egypt Ptolemy son of Lagus was the first to reign, for 40 years.         Over the Macedonians, Philip, also called Aridaeus, brother of Alexander, reigned for 7 years.      
                                            
                                          
  Alexander reigns in Asia in the 7th year of his reign and holds it all for 12 years.                                                       
                                                           
                                                      a At Rome Appius Claudius Caecus is considered important, who introduced the Claudian water and laid out the Appian Way. *                    
                                                                         
                                                                         
   Of Alexander                                            1       b Lysimachus held Lydia, Thrace and the Hellespont.       1           324
     8                 b Anaximenes and Epicurus are considered important.           329                               
                                              c The generals of the Macedonians turned to sedition.                    
                       c Alexander captures the Hyrcanians and Mardians, and returning, he founded Paraetonium in Ammon.                                           
                                      2       d Agathocles exercises tyranny at Syracuse.       2           323
                                                                 
   113th Olympiad                                              e The war against Lamia set in motion.                    
     9                 d Alexander captures the Aorn rock and crosses the River Indus.           328            f Perdiccas fights against the Egyptians.                
                                      3       g Ptolemy the son of Lagus, after he had gained control of Jerusalem and Judaea by treachery, transferred very many captives into Egypt.       3           322
1690   10                 e Alexander's war in India against Porus and Taxila.           327                               
                                                                 
     11                 f Harpalus flees to Attica.                        h Onias the high priest of the Jews, the son of Jad, is considered important.                    
     12                 g The Romans subjugate the Samnites, and plant colonies.           326                               
                                      4       i Menander, showing his first play, named Orgen, 1 wins.       4           321
   114th Olympiad                                                                 
               h Alexander dies in the 32nd year of his life in Babylon. After him, power was transferred into many hands.                  k Theophrastus the philosopher is well-known, who, so Cicero says, received this name because of his god-like speech. (*)                
                                               

(1) ΟΡΓΗΝ = 'anger'.

[208/209]
  Alexandrians       Consuls      
First in Syria
Macedo-nians
First inAsia
BC   Alexandrians       Consuls      
Syria
Macedo-nians
Asia
BC
  115th Olympiad                         16     a Theodorus the Atheist is well known.   4     9     10   309
    5     a Demetrius of Phalerum is considered illustrious.         5         320      118th Olympiad                                    
                                   17     b Demetrius of Phalerum went to Ptolemy, and persuaded him to restore democracy at Athens.   5     10     11   308
          b The Romans battling against the Samnites for a long time, finally reduce them to servitude.           In Asia, Antigonus reigns for 18 years.   1710   18       6     11     12   307
    6             6 319      19       7     12     13   306
     7             7      1   318      20        8     13     14   305
               Of the Macedonians, Cassander, for 19 years.        119th Olympiad                    
                          21     c Seleucus founded the cities of Antioch, Laodicia, Seleucia, Apamia, Edessa, Beroea, and Pella, of which he constructed Antioch in the 12th year of his kingship.   9     14      15    304
1700   8               1     2   317                               
   116th Olympiad                          22       10     15      16   303
     9     c The philosophers Menedemus and Speusippus are considered notable.         2     3   316                               
     10             3     4   315      23        11     16      17    302
     11             4     5   314      24        12     17      18    301
     12               5     6   313            d Seleucus occupied Babylon.                    
   117th Olympiad                        120th Olympiad        
In Asia, Demetrius, also called Poliorcetes, for 17 years
 
           d The Hebrew history of the Maccabees reckons the kingship of the Greeks from this year. But these books are not accepted as part of divine Scripture.   In Syria and Babylon and the upper regions reigned Seleucus Nicator, for 32 years.                      e The high priest of the Jews, Simon the son of Onias, is considered important, to whom 'the Just' was the sobriquet because of his religious reverence towards God and his clemency towards his fellow-citizens.          
                                           
                            25        13     18      1   302
                            26        14     19        303
                                      Of the Macedonians, the sons of Cassander, Antigonus and Alexander, for 4 years.    
                                         
     13     e The Romans defeat the Marsi, Umbri, and Peligni.   1     6     7   312                   
                                    27         15     1     3   302
From this point the Edessenes calculate their dates. 14      f The Romans plant colonies.   2         8   311 1720   28          16     2      4   301
      g Lysimachia founded in Thrace.                        121st Olympiad                    
     15     h Ptolemy invaded Cyprus.   3         9   310      29     f Demetrius, king of Asia,   17         5   300
[210/211]
  Alexandrians       Consuls      
Syria
Macedo-nians
Asia
BC   Alexandrians       Consuls      
Syria
Macedo-nians
Asia
BC
      30   surnamed Poliorcetes, devastates the city of the Samaritans, which Perdiccas had constructed.   18     4      6   295           both in Syria and Asia.                    
                Demetrius, for 6 years.                                     
                           39     a Serapis was introduced at Alexandria.   27     2     15   286
          a A census of Rome having been taken, there were found to be 270,000 Roman citizens were found.                                                   
      31     19         7   294      40     b Ariminum and Beneventum founded by the Romans. *   28         16   285
                                  124th Olympiad                    
       32   b Ambassadors of the Alexandrians having been sent for the first time to Rome by Ptolemy, they procured friendship. *   20         8   293    2nd of Egypt, Ptolemy Philadelphus, for 38 years                      
                                                       
                                    1     c Sostratus of Cnidius constructed the Pharos in Alexandria.   29         17   284
  122nd Olympiad                                            Demetrius handed himself over to Seleucus.  
       33   c Menander the writer of comedies dies. 21         9   292            d Antigonus, surnamed Gonatas, occupied Lacadaemon.            
           d The Romans defeat the Gauls and the Tyrrhenians: and the land of the Sabines is apportioned by lot.                                           
                                          e The Romans capture Croton.                    
       34      22         10   291      2     f Ptolemy Philadelphus permitted the Jews, who were in Egypt, to be free men: and, transmitting a votive vessel to Eleazar, high priest at Jerusalem, he arranged for the divine scriptures -- which he had in the Alexandrian library that he had collected for himself from every kind of literature -- to be translated into Greek speech from the Hebrew language by LXX translators.   30             283
           e Seleucus transfers Jews into those cities that he had constructed, granting them the right of citizenship and municipal rank in honour equal to the Greeks.                                      Of the Macedonians, Ptolemy, surnamed ΚΕΡΑΥΝΟΣ.   1    
                                                   
       35     23     5     11                         
                                    3       31     1         282
       36      24         12                      Meleager for 2 months, Antipater for 45 days, after whom Sosthenes for 2 years.          
   123rd Olympiad                           Of the Macedonians, Pyrrhus, for 7 months                           
           f Eleazar the brother of Simon took over the supervision of the temple as high priest of the Jews, because Onias the son of Simon was still a young boy.                                 
       37     25           13                           
                 After whom, Lysimachus, for 5 years.                              
                                             
           g After capturing Demetrius in Cilicia, Seleucus ruled                                   
1720     38      26     1     14                                   

1. In 'O' this reads 'Ceraunos' in Roman letters.

[212/213]
 
Alexandrians
 
Consuls
   
Syria and Asia
Macedonians
BC  
Alexandrians
 
Consuls
   
Syria and Asia
Macedonians
BC
    4    
22
    281 1750   18   and many cities in Sicily were joined to them.
14
  13    267
         
In Syria and Asia, after Seleucus reigned Antiochus Soter, for 19 years.
                     
                  19   a At Rome a vestal virgin detected in unchastity ends her life with a noose. *
15
  14   266
  125th Olympiad           20   
16
  15    265
    5    
1
    280   129th Olympiad          
            Antigonus Gonatas, for 36 years.       21   b Zeno the Stoic dies, after whom (comes) Cleanthes.
17
  16    264
                               
    6    
2
  1   279     22   c The Romans capture Syracuse.
18
  17   263
    7    
3
  2   278         d King Nicomedes, enlarging a city of Bithynia, named it Nicomedia.          
1740   8    
4
  3   277     23   
19
  18    262
  126th Olympiad                    
In Syria, Antiochus, who was called Theos, for 15 years. 
   
    9   a One of the Roman virgins, caught in an (act of) corruption, is punished.
5
    276              
                      24    
1
  19    261
    10   b Milo handed over Tarentum to the Romans.
6
  5   275   130th Olympiad            
    11   c The Romans held Calabria and Messana.
7
  6   274     25   e The Romans defeat the Carthaginians in a naval battle, and capture 100 cities of Libya.
2
  20   260
    12  
8
  7   273     26  
3
  21   259
  127th Olympiad                 27  
4
  22   258
    13   d Aratus is well known.
9
  8   272 1760    28   f Erasistratus the doctor is well known.
5
  23   257
    14    e The silver nummus minted at Rome for the first time.
10
    271   131st Olympiad          
                      29    g Antigonus restores liberty to the Athenians.
6
  24    256
    15   f Polemon the philosopher dies, after whom Arcesilas and Crates are considered important.
11
  10   270                  
    16   
12
  11    269     30   h After Eleazar, his uncle Manasses accepted the pontificate of the Jews.
7
  25    255
                      31  
8
  26    254
                      32  
9
  27    253
  128th Olympiad g Epicurus died.             132nd Olympiad            
    17    h The Romans planted colonies,
13
  12    268s     33   i The Carthaginians capture 90
10
  28    252
[214/215]
 
Alexandrians
 
Consuls
   
Syria and Asia
Macedonians
BC  
Alexandrians
 
Consuls
   
Syria and Asia
Macedonians
BC
    34   Roman ships in Sicily, the consul Metellus having been put to flight.
11
  29   251     6    
6
    241
    35  
12
  30   250   135th Olympiad            
    36  
13
  31   249     7   a The poet Quintus Ennius is born at Tarentum, who having been translated by Cato the quaestor to Rome, lived on the Aventine hill, content with a very meagre income and the help of one servant woman. *
7
    240
  133rd Olympiad                              
    37   a When the Parthians had rebelled against Macedonian rule, Arsaces was the first to reign; hence they were called Arsacids.
14
  32    248      
8
    239
                       
9
    238
1770   38  
15
  33    247 1780   10  
10
  7    237
  3rd of Egypt, Ptolemy Euergetes, for 26 years
In Syria, Seleucus Callinicus, for 20 years.
        136th Olympiad          
              11   b At Rome, a vestal virgin who had been corrupted by a slave, did away with herself by her own hand.
11
  8   236
              12  
12
    235
    1   b Onias the high priest of the Jews, the son of Simon the Just, is considered important, who, failing to render the usual tribute to king Ptolemy, compelled him to anger. In fact, Josephus, a noble man among his own people, having been sent by the Jews as an ambassador to Ptolemy, when he had won the friendship of the king because of his many presents to him, is appointed governor of Judaea and the surrounding region.
1
  34    246     13  
13
  10    234
                              Of Macedon, Antigonus, for 15 years.  
                               
                      14    
14
    233
                    137th Olympiad            
                      15    c The high priest of the Jews Simon, son of Onias, is considered important, in whose time, Jesus the son of Sirach composing the book of wisdom, which they call the Panareton, also made mention of Simon in it.
15
    232
                                   
    2  
2
  35   245     16  
16
    231
  134th Olympiad               17  
17
    230
     
3
  36    244     18  
18
    229
                    138th Olympiad          
            Of the Macedonians, Demetrius, for 10 years.       19  
19
    228
              1790   20    d Nearly 40,000 Gauls slaughtered by the Romans.
20
    227
        c At Rome a census having been conducted, there were found to be 260,000 men.              
In Syria, Seleucus Ceraunos, for 3 years.
 
   
    4  
4
  1   243              
    5   d Temple of Vesta burned down at Rome.
5
    242     21    
1
    226
[216/217]
 
Alexandrians
 
Consuls
   
Syria and Asia
Macedonians
BC  
Alexandrians
 
Consuls
   
Syria and Asia
Macedonians
BC
    22    
2
    225   142nd Olympiad when Marcellus is consul.
       
  139th Olympiad                 9   a The Romans subjugate Capua and Sicily.
12
    212
    23    
3
  10    224                  
         
Antiochus the Great, for 36 years
 
        10   b Antiochus, King of Syria, having conquered Ptolemy Philopator, unites Judaea with himself.
13
    211
                  11  
14
  9   210
    24   a Caria and Rhodes were so struck by an earthquake, that the great colossus collapsed.
1
  11    223     12    c Laevinus makes an alliance with Attalus, the king of Asia. *
15
  10    209
    25   
2
  12    222   143rd Olympiad          
    26   
3
  13    221     13   d The high priest of the Jews, Onias the son of Simon, is considered notable, to whom Arrius the king of the Lacedaemonians sends legates.
16
  11   208
  140th Olympiad             1810   14  
17
  12    207
    Of Egypt, Ptolemy Philopator, for 17 years                 15   
18
  13    206
                    16   
19
  14    205
                  144th Olympiad            
      b The events which were written in the third book of Maccabees take place in the time of this Ptolemy.
4
  14   220     17    e Scipio recaptures many cities of Spain.
20
  15    204
     
5
  15    219   5th of Egypt, Ptolemy Epiphanes, for 24 years              
          Of the Macedonians, Philip, for 42 years                
                         
    3    
6
  1   218     1   f Ptolemy Epiphanes, having appointed Scopas general of his army, captures Judaea and many cities of Syria.
21
  16    203
1800   4    
7
  2    217                  
  141st Olympiad                 2  
22
  17    202
      c The Jews were defeated, and 60,000 of their soldiers were slaughtered.
8
    216                  
                      3   g Naevius the writer of comedies dies at Utica, driven from Rome by a party of nobles, but especially of Metellus. *
23
  18    201
        d Vestal Virgins buried alive at Rome, on account of an accusation of unchastity.                            
    6  
9
  4   215                  
       
10
    214   145th Olympiad h Plautus, from Sarsina in Umbria, dies at Rome; who, because of trouble over his income, had hired himself          
      e Eratosthenes is well known.
11
    213     4  
24
  19    200
        f The Romans capture Syracuse                            
[218/219]
 
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        out at a baker's handmill; there, as often as he had leisure from work, he was accustomed to write and sell plays. *
                and conceded Syria, Phoenicia, Samaria, and Judaea under the name of a "dowry."
       
       
            15  
35
  30    189
       
          148th Olympiad            
    5   a Near Thera, an island appeared which is called Hiera.
25
  20    199         a Eumenes, who founded Eumenia in Phrygia, brother of King Attalus, is considered important. *          
    6  
26
  21   198                  
1820   7    b Antiochus, after defeating Scopas, recovered the cities of Syria, and Judaea willingly surrenders to him.
27
  22   197                  
                      16   b The second book of Maccabees contains things that happened among the Jews of this time.
36
  31    188
                          In Syria and Asia, Seleucus, also called Philopator, for 12 years
 
 
   
  146th Olympiad                        
    8   c The Romans commanded the Greeks to be free and all Spain 1 carried out orders.
28
  23    196         c Titus Livius, the tragedian, is considered important; who, as a reward for his ingenuity, was granted his freedom by Livius Salinator, whose children he used to teach. 2 *    
                             
                  1830   17  
1
  32    187
    9   d Antiochus, knowing the goodwill of the Jews towards himself, presents them with great gifts, and through his letters honours them with constant praises.
29
  24    195                  
                                   
    10  
30
  25   194         d When Hannibal was demanded from Antiochus, with whom he had associated himself after he had been conquered by Scipio, by means of envoys, he fled to Prusias, the king of Bithyniae. But when through Flaminius the Senate again were demanding him (Hannibal) also from him (Prusias), and when he was going to have to be handed over, he drank poison, and was buried at Libyssa in Bithyniae. *          
    11   
31
  26    193                  
  147th Olympiad                 18  
2
  33    186
        e Antiochus, after the battle at Thermopylae in which he was defeated, agreed this between himself and the Romans, that he would pay one thousand talents each year in the name of "compensation."                            
                                   
    12  
32
  27    192     19  
3
  34    185
                                   
    13  
33
  28    191   149th Olympiad            
        f The Romans planted many colonies.               20   e Simon, a dignitary of the temple at Jerusalem, fleeing to Apollonius the governor of Phoenicia; many gifts having been promised to him, he began to claim the priesthood for himself.
4
  35    184
        g Antiochus, having returned to friendship with Ptolemy, made peace with him; and (Ptolemy) gave him his daughter Cleopatra as wife,                  
       
                         
       
    14  
34
  29   190                  

(1) Hiberia: Only the Roman province of Hispania, as the remainder was still not under Roman control until 29 BC.
(2) cf. The Concise Oxford Companion to Classical Literature entry for "Livius Andronicus" who is here intended; the facts are disputed, see the Loeb Remains of Old Latin II p.viii ff. Titus is the name of Livius historicus not of the Lucius Livius Andronicus, writer of tragedy and epic here referred to.

[220/221]
 
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    21   When Seleucus heard about this, he sent Heliodorus to carry out the job, who, when he arrived in Judaea, judging unfairly and carrying out many crimes, is frightened away by divine omens against himself, and returns to Seleucus. However, the priest Onias had taken care that Simon should be made a fugitive.
5
  36   183   151st Olympiad  
       
                      4   a Aristobolus, by nation a Jew, the peripatetic philosopher, is well known, who writes commentaries (consisting of) explanations on (the books of) Moses for Ptolemy Philometor.
12
    176
                         
In Syria and Asia, Antiochus Epiphanes, for 11 years.
     
    22   
6
  37    182              
                               
                      5  
1
  2   175
                         
2
    174
    23   a Hyrcanus, a son of Joseph the leader of Judaea, when he went abroad to visit Ptolemy, was received honorably by him. But his brothers, after a plot had been formed against him, were the cause of great tribulations for the nation of Judaea.
7
  38    181        
3
    173
                    152nd Olympiad            
                      8   b Antiochus Epiphanes, when he had returned by order of the senate from the land of the Ptolemies, which he had unexpectedly invaded, came into Judaea, and there Jesus, who also was called Jason, handed over the pontificate to his brother Onias; later, having been expelled, he appointed Onias named Menelaus his successor to it. And so, strife having been started between the princes over the dignity of the priesthood, the seeds of immense miseries sprouted.
4
  5   172
                                   
                                   
                      9  
5
  6   171
                                   
  150th Olympiad                              
    24    
8
  39    180     10   
6
    170
  6th of Egypt, Ptolemy Philometor, for 35 years                              
                               
                  11   
7
    169
    1   b Statius Caecilius, the writer of comedies, is considered important. By nation he was an Insubrian Gaul and at first he was an comrade of Ennius. Some say that he came from Milan. He died in the year after the death of Ennius, and was buried next to the Janiculum. *
9
  40   179        
       
                    153rd Olympiad  
       
    2  
10
  41    178         c Antiochus attacks the law of the Jews: in fact firstly compelling their whole province to idolatry, those who were unwilling to comply he tortured to death.
       
                         
       
1840   3   
11
  42    177        
       
          Of the Macedonians, Perseus, for 10 years.          
       
                             
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        Afterwards, actually going up into Jerusalem, he devastates the temple and vessels of God which had been consecrated for ministry: he puts an image of Jupiter of Olympus in the temple, he builds a shrine of Jupiter the Foreigner in Samaria on the summit of mount Garizin, the Samaritans themselves having entreated that he should do this. In fact in this time a certain Matthathias from the priesthood, son of Hasmonaeus, in the hamlet of Modeim, taking up arms against the generals of Antiochus, also supported by the help of his sons, vindicated the laws of his country, in the 153rd olympiad.
          154th Olympiad  
In Syria and Asia, Antiochus Eupator, for 2 years.
 
 
   
       
                a Judas, also called Maccabeus, son of Mattathias, the general of the Jews, expelling the generals of Antiochus from Judaea, and purifying the Temple from the statues of the Idols, returned the laws of his country to his countrymen after three years in the 154th olympiad.    
2330      
                   
       
            16   
1
      164
       
            17   
2
      163
       
               
Demetrius Soter , for 12 years.
 
   
       
                   
       
            18   
1
      162
       
            19    
2
      161
       
          155th Olympiad       Of the Jews, general Judas, for 3 years  
       
                b After Menelaus the high priest of the Jews had been slain by the younger Antiochus, who had earlier abandoned Judaea to Antiochus Epiphanes, Alcimus, an outsider to the sacerdotal tribe, through ambition takes possession of the pontificate. On account of this Onias, son of the high priest Onias, moving into Egypt, founded a community with his name in the Heliopolitan district, after a temple in the likeness of the temple of his country had been constructed. Alcimus, indeed, while carrying on hostilities against Judas Maccabaeus, after no great time died, struck down by the wrath of God; and, so, with the approval of all the Jews, it is decided that the priesthood should go to Judas Macabaeus, who, having received that dignity, sends legates to Rome: and the Senate decreed that the Jews      
       
                     
         
                         
         
                         
    12   a Ennius the poet dies, older than 70, of a joint disease, and was buried in Scipio's Monument on the Appian Way within the first milestone of the City. Some claim that his bones were transferred to Rudiae from the Janiculum. *
8
    168     20  
3
    160
                                   
1850   13   
9
  10    167                  
                                   
    14   
10
  11   166                  
                                   
    15    b After Perseus had been killed, the Romans ordered the Macedonians, Illyrians and Galatians to be free.
11
  12    165                  
                                   
                      21   
4
    159
            The kingship of the Macedonians came to an end.
~~~~~~~~
         
       
                     
       
                               
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        were to be considered friends and supporters of the Romans.
          157th Olympiad  
       
       
            28   a The false Philip reigns in Macedonia for 1 year.
11
    152
    22   a Publius Terentius of Carthage, a writer of comedies, granted his freedom on account of his genius and his appearance, dies in Arcadia; before he delivered it to the aediles, he first reads the Andria to Caecilius, who was himself greatly admiring. *
5
    158                  
                      29   b Alexander, son of the Antiochus who was named Epiphanes, ruling Syria and Asia, bestows on Jonathan a crown and many notable gifts.
12
    151
            Of the Jews, general Jonathan, for 19 years             
In Syria and Asia, Alexander, for 9 years and 10 months
 
 
   
                         
                         
                               
1860   23   b The battle against the generals of Demetrius having begun, Judas is killed, having carried on the pontificate for 3 years.
6
  1    157     30   c The Romans, after the false Philip had been killed, make the Macedonians tributaries.
1
  8   150
                                   
                                   
                      31    
2
    149
  156th Olympiad               158th Olympiad            
    24   c Aristarchus the grammarian is well known.
7
    156     32   d At Alexandria, with Ptolemy judging, the Samaritans and Jews contend about the honours that are to be offered by each party to their temple, and the Jews win.
3
  10    148
                                   
    25   d Jonathan, general of the Jews, the brother of Judas, after Bacchides the general of Demetrius had been expelled from Judaea, received the pontificate. *
8
    155                  
                                   
                                   
                          e The poet Lucilius is born. *          
    26   e Pacuvius of Brundisium the tragedian, the nephew of the poet Ennius by his daughter, is considered important; and he lived in Rome as long as he busied himself with painting and offered fables for sale; then, having moved to Tarentum, he died almost a nongenarian.1
9
    154 1870   33   f At Rome, a survey having been carried out, there were found to be 322,000 men.
4
  11   147
       
                         
       
            34   g Oppius imprisons the Galli: and Carthago is brought by Scipio under the power of the Romans,668 years since her foundation; or, as
5
  12    146
       
                         
       
                         
    27   
10
  5    153     35   
6
  13    145
                                   

(1) The "Remains of Old Latin," vol. II (Loeb Library, 1982), says that Pacuvius was "[p. xvii] a son of the sister of the poet | [p. xviii] Ennius," with footnote e, attached to the word "sister," saying "So Pliny, XXXV, 19; son of Ennius's daughter, says Jerome wrongly" (p. xvii). Later, the text says: "His year of fame is stated by Jerome to have been 154 B.C." with footnote d, "Jerome, ad ann. 600 = 154" (p. xviii).

[226/227]
 
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        others affirm,748.
                him the estate next to Pisaurum is called Accianus: since he had been brought there from the City among the colonists. *
       
  159th Olympiad  
               
       
  7th of Egypt, Ptolemy Euergetes, for 29 years.  
               
       
   
            7   a After Antiochus the son of Alexander was at length murdered, Trypho tried to invade the kingdom of Syria but next dies himself.
3
    138
   
               
After whom Antiochus Sidetes for 9 years.
 
   
    1   a Jonathan, both general and high priest of the Jews, makes a friendship pact with the Romans and the Spartans.
7
  14    144            
                             
                  1880   8    b After Demetrius, his brother Antiochus who was surnamed Sidetes reigned over all Syria.
1
  2   137
    2   b Ptolemy gave his daughter as wife to Alexander, the son of Balas, king of Syria.
8
  15    143                  
                                   
    3   c Scipio overthrows the Numantines.
9
  16    142   161st Olympiad            
        d Brutus subjugates Spain as far as the Ocean.
          9   c To Simon, both high priest and leader of the Jews, the Romans and the Spartans -- after his emissaries had been received amicably -- sent friendly greetings in return.
2
    136
    4   e Trypho kills Jonathan, high priest of the Jews, and Simon is received into the priesthood of his brother Jonathan.
10
  17    141                  
       
In Syria and Asia, Demetrius, for 3 years.
 
 
        10  
3
    135
                             
  160th Olympiad               d The Slave War started in Sicily.          
    5   f Trypho slays Antiochus son of Alexander.
1
  18    140     11   e Simon the high priest of the Jews is slain, to whom succeeds his son John.
4
    134
                                   
        g Ptolemy marries off his daughter to Demetrius, along with the kingdom which he had taken away from Alexander.               12   f The first book of the Maccabees contains a history of this time.
5
    133
                                   
                    162nd Olympiad g Antiochus Sidetes, king of Syria, taking up arms against Judaea and surrounding Jerusalem with a siege trench, when he had forced the high priest Simon to terms, withdraws, in the 162nd Olympiad.          
    6   h L. Accius, a tragedian, is considered important. (He was) born to freed parents in the consulship of Mancinus and Serranus, and already recited his own writings to Pacuvius of Tarentus when he [Pacuvius) was an old man: from
2
  19    139     13  
6
  7   132
       
                         
       
  Of the Jews, Duke Simon, for 8 years.       14   
7
    131
       
           
Of the Jews, King Hyrcanus, also called John, for 26 years.
 
                      h Dying, Attalus made the Roman  
[228/229]
 
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    15   people the heirs of his kingdom.
8
    130     27   seige. Later Herod, restoring it, wanted it to be called Sebaste in honor of Augustus.
7
  13    118
    16   a Ptolemy expelled from Egypt.
9
    129                  
  163rd Olympiad  
After whom Demetrius again for 4 years
 
 
    1900   28  
8
  14    117
        b Arsaces the Parthian killed Antiochus.       166th Olympiad          
                29   a The philosopher and poet Marcus Terentius Varro is born. *
9
  15    116
    17   c The slaves, who were rebelling in Sicily, compelled by the necessity of the siege, were driven in turn to have to devour their comrades' corpses.
1
  3   128   8th of the Egyptians, Ptolemy Physcon also called Soter, for 17 years.          
                               
                               
1890   18  
2
  4    127              
        d The most renowned city of the Arvernian Gauls, and King Vituitus captured. *               1    
10
  16   115
                      2    
11
  17   114
    19   e Close by the islands of Aeolia, cast up in the fire from an eruption, appeared the island that is now called Hiera.
3
    126        
12
  18   113
                           
 
After whom Antiochus Cyzicenus for 18 years
 
 
   
    20  
4
    125     167th Olympiad      
  164th Olympiad   In Syria and Asia, Antiochus Grypus, for 12 years             b Antiochus Cyzicenus, having cast out Grypus, seized Syria: and then Grypus, having defeated Cyzicenus, took it back again. Thus they were ruling in turn, fighting in turn against each other.    
        f While John, the general and priest of the Jews, was waging war against the Hyrcanians, he received the name of Hyrcanus and, when he asked the Romans for the privilege of friendship, he was by decree of the Senate recorded on the list of friends.         4  
1
  19   112
                5  
2
  20   111
    21  
5
  7   124      
3
  21    110
                       
4
  22    109
    22  
6
  8   123     168th Olympiad          
    23   
7
    122     8   c Fighting against the Romans, Jugurtha is captured.
5
  23   108
    24   g Colonies planted at Narbonne.
8
  10    121                  
  165th Olympiad             1910    9   d Rhodes having been struck by an earthquake, the Colossus fell.
6
  24    107
    25    h The Jews' priest Hyrcanus razed Samaria, which in our day is called Sebaste, which had been captured by
9
  11   120        
       
                          e Among the Jews, Jonathas holds the principate in a glorious way.
       
    26   
10
  12    119                  
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    10   a Cicero is born at Arpinum, to a mother named Helvia and a father of knightly rank, from the royal stock of the Volsci. *
7
  25    106   170th Olympiad celebrates a triumph with Catulus. (*)        
                      16   a The Thracians conquered by the Romans.
13
  4   100
                          b Once more a Slave War flares up in Sicily.          
    11   b Gn. Pompey the Great is born. *
8
  26    105     17   
14
    99
  169th Olympiad     Of the Jews, Aristobolus, for 1 year.     9th of the Egyptians Ptolemy, also called Alexander, for 10 years.            
        c Aristobolus, the son of Jonathan, both king and high priest, was the first amongst the Jews to wear the insignia of the diadem, 484 years after the Babylonian captivity.
After him reigned Jannaeus surnamed Alexander, who, also controlling the pontificate, presided over the people with great cruelty.
                 
    12  
9
    104              
          after whom Jannaeus, also called Alexander, for 27 years.                
                  c Ptolemy Physcon was expelled from the kingdom by his mother Cleopatra, and withdraws to Cyprus.
15
    98
                             
                  1920   2  
16
  7    97
                    171st Olympiad            
                      3   d Aquilius suppressed the Slave war in Sicily.
17
    96
                                   
        d Turpilius the writer of comedies, exceedingly old, dies at Sinuessa. *                   e Dying, Ptolemy King of the Cyrenes made the Romans his heirs in his will.          
                                   
    13   e Gaius Lucilius the satirical writer dies at Naples, and is given a public funeral, in the forty sixth year of his life. *
10
    103     4   f Seleucus is burned alive by Antiochus, the son of Cyzicenus
18
    95
                          In Syria, Philip, for 2 years      
                                 
        f The poet Marcus Furius, surnamed Bibaculus, is born at Cremona. *               5   g The poet Titus Lucretius is born, who afterwards, driven mad by a love-potion, although during intervals of his insanity he had composed several books which Cicero later corrected, killed himself with his own hand in his forty-fourth year. *
1
  10    94
                                   
    14   g 200,000 Cimbrians slaughtered, and 80,000 captured along with their leader Teutomodus by Marius. *
11
    102                  
                      6  
2
  11    93
                          The kingship of Syria and Asia ends.
~~~~~~~~
   
    15   h Gaius Marius being Consul for the fifth time, defeats the Cimbri by the Eridanus, and afterward for this
12
    101            
                             
[232/233]
  Alexandrians     Consuls          Jews   BC   Alexandrians     Consuls          Jews   BC
172nd Olympiad a Antiochus fleeing to the Parthians, he later surrendered himself to Pompey, after which Philip was captured by Gabinius.           3   a Sallustius Crispus, the historical writer, is born among the Sabines, at Amiternum. *   18   86
                           
  7     12   92       b Sulla devastates the Athenians.        
                4   c At Rome, a survey having been carried out, there were found to be 463,000 men. *   19   85
  8   b Syria, having been possessed by kings until this point, fell under Roman control.   13   91              
              174th Olympiad          
  9   c The Picentes, Marsians and Pelignians started a war against the Romans. *   14   90     d The temple at Delphi burned down for the third time by the Thracians, and at Rome the Capitol.   20   84
                           
  10     15   89              
      d Lucius Pomponius of Bologna, writer of atellans, is considered important. *           6   e Jannaeus captures many towns.   21   83
                    f In the 26th year of his life, Cicero defends Quintius. *        
                           
173rd Olympiad             7   g P. Terentius Varro, from the hamlet of the Atax, is born in the province of (Gallia) Narbonensis; after living for 35 years, he learned Greek letters with great zeal. *   22   82
10th of Egypt, PTOLEMY, who was ejected by his mother, for 8 years                        
e Returned from exile, he (Ptolemy) obtained the kingdom because the citizens had expelled Alexander, who had been king before him, on account of the murder of his mother.                      
                     
                     
  1     16   88   8   h Vultacilius Plotus, a Latin rhetor, a teacher and freedman of Gnaeus Pompey, opened a school in Rome. *   23   81
      f Plotius Gallus first taught Latin rhetoric at Rome, about whom Cicero thus declares: "I retain the memory that, when we were boys, a certain Plotius first began to teach in Latin." *                      
                           
              175th Olympiad          
              11th of Egypt, Ptolemy Dionysus, for 30 years          
                       
1930 2   g Gaius Valerius Catullus, the lyric writer, is born at Verona.   17   87          
                1   i Sulla occupied Rome, and dies after two years.   24   80
                           
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  Alexandrians     Consuls          Jews   BC   Alexandrians     Consuls          Jews   BC
  2   a Having defended Roscius against Chrysogonus, Cicero withdraws to Athens, and returns from that place to Rome after three years. *   25   79       a Vergil Maro is born in the community that is called "Andes" not far from Mantua, when Pompey and Crassus were consuls. *        
                           
                12     8   69
  3   b Pompey celebrated a triumph most gloriously. 26   78              
      c Jannaeus devastates many communities.               b M. Porcius Cato the Stoic philosopher is well known. *        
      d Lepidus declared a public enemy.                      
1940 4   e T. Quintius Atta, a writer of national dramas , dies at Rome, and is buried at the second milestone of the Praenestine Way. *   27   77   178th Olympiad        
      Of the Jews, Alexandra reigned for 9 years.     13   c Antioch in Syria captured by the Romans.   9   68
              d The Cretan war started, from which Metellus was called Creticus. The Jews made tributaries by Pompey, and Hyrcanus received the pontificate among them, for 34 years.  
  176th Olympiad          
  5   f Alexandra, also called Salina 2, the wife of Alexander, reigned at Jerusalem, in whose time the breakdown of government and various military disasters oppressed the Jews.   1   76       e The grove of Daphne near Antioch is consecrated to Apollo by Pompey. *  
                     
              1950 14   f Aristobulus and Hyrcanus, sons of Alexandra, fighting against each other for power, exposed an opportunity to the Romans to take possession of Judaea. And so Pompey, coming to Jerusalem after the city had been captured and the Temple had been opened, approaches up to the holy of holies; he brings Aristobolus with him as a captive, and confirms the pontificate to Hyrcanus; then he makes Antipater, the son of Herod of Ascalon, procurator of Palestine.   1   67
  6     2   75              
    g The Gladiators' War in Campania. 3 *   3   74              
      h L. Lucullus was the first to be hailed 'imperator', having defeated Armenia, Mesopotamia, and captured Nisbis with the brother of the king. (*)           15     2   66
                           
  8     4   73              
                           
  177th Olympiad                      
  9   i Pompey subjugated all Spain. 4 *   5   72              
                           
  10   k M. Lucullus celebrated a triumph over the Bessi, having captured Cabilonnum, together with Tomis and the other nearby cities. *   6   71              
                16    g Libya left by the will of king Appion to the Romans. *   3   65
                           
  11    l Crassus celebrated a triumph. *   7   70       h The satiric and lyric 5        

(1) 'togatae'.
(2) Salome.
(3) The Third Servile War (Gladiators' War), instigated in 73 B.C. by Spartacus, an escaped slave and gladiator; the war ended in 71 B.C.
(4) Not the peninsula as a whole, but the entire Roman province. This had been in revolt under Sertorius.
(5) Venusia was on the borders of Apulia and Lucania; the date was 8 December 65 B.C.

[236/237]
  Alexandrians     Consuls          Jews   BC   Alexandrians     Consuls          Jews   BC
      poet Horace Flaccus is born at Venusia to a freedman father. *               he died at Piacenza. *        
                25   a Caesar, crossing the Rhine, devastates the Germans.   12   56
  179th Olympiad                      
  17   a Apollodorus the Pergamene, a Greek orator, teacher of Callidius and Augustus, is considered important. *   4   64       b The consul Crassus captured with his son at Carrae. *        
                           
                26   c Ventidius is the first of the Romans to defeat the Parthians. *   13   55
  18   b Pompey, after Jerusalem had been captured, makes the Jews tributary.   5   63              
                    d The active Populares orator Curio is considered notable in Rome; who afterwards in Africa, from the shame of losing his Army, chose to die rather than escape. *        
  19   c Those things which Sallust and Livy write about Catiline, Cethegus, and Lentulus, and the Consul Cicero, happened at this time. (*)   6   62   27     14   54
                           
                28     15   53
  20   d Cicero spends a year in exile, being received with honour by Plancius. 1 *   7   61              
                    e Virgil, having assumed the toga, goes to Milan, and after a short time goes on to Rome. *        
      e Pompey hailed 'imperator.'                      
  180th Olympiad                      
  21   f Caesar captures Lusitania and some islands in the ocean.   8   60   182nd Olympiad        
                29   f The statue of Jupiter Olympiacus struck by lightning.   16   52
  22   g Messalla Corvinus the orator, and Titus Livius of Padua, the writer of history, are born. *   9   59              
                30   g Caesar captures Germans and Gauls.   17   51
              12th of Egypt, Cleopatra for 22 years          
      h Virgil becomes learned by studies at Cremona. *                
  23   i Catullus dies at Rome in the 30th year of his life. *   10   58   1   h The beginning of the civil war of Caesar and Pompey.   18   50
                           
1960 24   k M. Callidius the orator is considered important; later, having followed the Caesarean factions in the Civil War, when he was in charge of Gallia Togata,   11   57     i Diodorus Siculus, a writer of Greek history, is considered important. *?   19   49
                           
181st Olympiad           183rd Olympiad        

(1) 58BC, in Macedonia. Gnaeus Plancius was quaestor of Macedonia.

[238/239]
  Romans 3        
Alexandrians
Jews   BC   Romans        
Alexandrians
Jews   BC
      a Gaius Julius Caesar was the first among the Romans to attain sole power, from whom Romans holding first rank are called 'Caesars'.           184th Olympiad a Antony decreed that the month Quintilis should be called July: because Julius (Caesar) had been born in it.          
                               
                  5   b After Judaea had been captured, Cassius despoils the temple. 7   23   44
                               
  First of the Romans, C. JULIUS CAESAR, for 4 years and 7 months            c On the Ides of March, Gaius Julius Caesar is slain in the Curia, and at once Publius Dolabella took office. 1 *          
b From this point the Antioch-enes calcul-ate their dates. 1   c Pompey, conquered in battle, and fleeing, is killed by the eunuchs of the king of the Alexandrians. 3   20    48                
                    d The body of C. Caesar cremated on the Rostra, as an honour. *          
    d M. Caelius the praetor and T. Annius Milo the exile crushed while simultaneously promoting a revolt in the Thurian and Bruttian regions. *                          
                    e Servius Sulpicius, a lawyer, and Publius Servilius Isauricus given a state funeral. *          
                               
                      f At Rome, three simultaneously risen suns gradually coalesced into the same disk. *          
1970 2   e Ptolemy's carcass found in the Nile wearing a golden breastplate. * 4   21    47                
                      g Among other portents, that occurred all around the world, an ox in the region of Rome at its plowing spoke: "It is useless to goad me on. For soon there will be a shortage not of crops but of men." 2 *          
      f Caesar confirms the reign of Cleopatra in Egypt on account of the influence of her unchastity.                          
                               
  3   g Julian basilica dedicated at Rome. * 5   22    46                
      h A decree of the senate and the Athenians is sent to the Jews, who had proposed alliance through emissaries.                          
                    2nd of the Romans, Octavianus Caesar Augustus reigned for 56 years and 6 months; from whom the kings of the Romans are called 'Augusti'          
                             
      i Cleopatra entered the City with a royal escort. *                        
                  1   h Antonius launches a war against Caesar Augustus. *? 9   25    43
      k Women who have neither husbands nor children prohibited from the use of litters or pearls, and remain minors for 44 years. *                          
                      i Laberius, writer of mimes, dies at Puteoli, in the 10th month after the murder of Caesar.          
                               
  4   l Nigidius Figulus, a Pythagorean and a magician, dies in exile. *? 6   23    45       k Publius the mime playwright, a Syrian by birth, debuts on the Roman stage. *          
                               

(1) Literally "received the fasces."
(2) Cf. Livy 28.11.4 (for 206 BC, not this 41 BC) "et bos in agro Romano locutus." (3) Prior to this page in 'O' the heading always reads 'Consuls'. Thereafter it is 'Romans'.

[240/241]
  Romans        
Alexandrians
Jews   BC   Romans        
Alexandrians
Jews   BC
      a Cicero, in his 64th year, is slain by Herennius and Popilius in his villa at Formiae. *                 to friendship with him.          
                      a The poet Cornificius died, deserted by the soldiers whom on account of their often fleeing, he calls 'helmeted hares'. His sister was Cornificia, whose notable epigrams survive. *          
                               
  c According to some, Cicero is killed in his villa at Caieta. b The head of Cicero, with his right hand, placed in front of the Rostra, and next to it the crowned likeness of the soldier Popilius who had slain him. *                          
                           
                  b Cassius looted the temple of the Rhodians. *      
                  c Second split of Augustus and Antonius.        
  d Ovid Naso is born in Abruzzi. 1 *             185th Olympiad          
                  4   d Cornelius Nepos the historical writer is considered important. * 11   28    40
  2   e Caius Falcidius, a Tribune of the People, brought in a law 2 against anyone making a legacy in his will so great that it did not leave to the heirs a fourth part of the estate. * 9   26    42                
                      e Antigonus while fighting against the Jews is at length killed. From then on down to the present time the kingship of Jerusalem has been destroyed. Accordingly after him Herod, a foreign prince, and in no way relating to Judea, was installed by the Romans.          
                               
                  5   12   29   39
      f Curtius Salassus was burned alive with four cohorts in the island of Arada, because he had exacted tributes quite oppressively. *                          
                               
                               
                    13   30    38
  3   g His owner recognized Vibius Maximus that had been designated quaestor, and carried him off. * 10   27    41       f The Fornii, father and son, are considered important orators, of whom the consular son dies before the father. *          
                1980 7   14   31    37
                               
      h Oil erupts out from the earth from a taberna meritoria 3 on the other side of the Tiber, and flowed all the day without interruption, signifying the Grace of Christ from the nations. *             186th Olympiad          
                  8   g Sallust died in the quadrennium before the Battle of Actium. * 15   32    36
                               
                    h M. Bavius the poet, whom Vergil mentions in the Eclogues, dies in Cappadocia. 16   33    35
      i Augustus defeats Antony, and by the senate intervening, returns                          
                               

(1) Literally "among the Peligni."
(2) The Falcidian Law,(Justinian, Digest of Roman Law, 35.2) by its first Article, conferred the power of disposing of an estate up to and including three-fourths of the same. Latin text. English translation. Some paraphrase has been necessary: literally "Caius Falcidius, a Tribune of the People, proposed a law against anyone making a legacy in his Will, greater than would [still] leave a quarter [of the whole estate] to the heirs." It is followed in some manuscripts by a long and confused gloss, which adds the words "... if four or less." And then goes on, "If however there were more than four, the proportion was in this way: that part that Falcidius ordered (unless the father forbade it) and the other profitable legacies, and similar less-desirable items, were divided up equally in the same way as the same father bequeathed his property either to the children or to more distant relatives."
(3) Cassius Dio 48.43.4, giving the date as 38 BC. Here one day, in 38 BC, oil suddenly started to gush out from the ground. This mysterious event was given the Latin name fons olei ("oil source", or "oil fountain"). This is the legend of S.Maria in Trastevere. A taberna meritoria was an upmarket tavern and lodging house.

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Romans        
Alexandrians
Jews   BC   Romans        
Alexandrians
Jews   BC
10   a Herod, the son of Antipater from Ascalon and whose mother was Cypris from Arabia, received the principate of the Jews from the Romans: in whose time, around the time of Christ's birth, the kingship and the priesthood of Judaea, which previously had been held by a succession of lesser men, were destroyed, and the prophecy was fulfilled which speaks thus through Moses: 17   34   34       These 69 weeks 1 come to 483 years, in which the christs (=anointed ones), that is, the high priests reigned through the anointing of oil until Hyrcanus. The latter having been captured finally by the Parthians, Herod son of Antipater received Judaea, which did not belong to him, from Augustus and the Senate. And his sons after him reigned until the most recent captivity of Jerusalem, never having been appointed high priests from the succession of the sacerdotal line, serving God according to the Law of Moses for all their lives. Indeed, certain lay persons, and others at another time, and not a few, used to buy the priestly office from Roman Emperors, for a single year or a bit more. All these things Daniel the prophet also foretells, saying:          
        Herod the foreigner reigned over the Jews, the secular power of the pontificate having ended, for 37 years.                  
                         
                         
                         
                         
                         
                         
                         
                               
    "There will not lack a prince from Judah, nor a leader from his loins, until he shall come in whom it is entrusted. And he himself will be the hope of the nations." 2                          
                             
                             
      And in this very place, Christ, whom the Scripture of Daniel prophesies, received his end. For until Herod, christs (=anointed ones), i.e. the high priests, were the kings of the Jews, who began to rule from the 65th Olympiad and the restoration of the Temple under Darius, until Hyrcanus and the 186th Olympiad, around 433 years having passed: which is what Daniel also signifies, saying:                          
                               
                    "And after 7 and 62 weeks the anointing will perish, and there will be no sound judgement there and the people will defile the temple and the sanctuary with the leader who is coming: and they will be struck down in the flood of war." And in what follows: "And upon the Temple, he says, an abomination of desolation: and until the fulfillment of the time, a fulfillment will be given upon the desolation."          
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
                      a Herod installed a certain Ananelus, invited from Babylon, as high priest of the Jews, and after a short while he appointed Aristobulus, the brother of his wife and nephew of Hyrcanus as          
    And may you know and understand that from the beginning of the word of returning to and rebuilding Jerusalem, until the leadership of CHRIST (=the anointed one), 7 weeks 1 and 62 weeks 1.                        
                           
                           

(1) 'Hebdomades' is properly a 'group of seven' years rather than a week. The word 'weeks' is intended to be quaint or mystical, as note where it is initially explained by Leviticus 25:8 'numerabis quoque tibi septem ebdomades annorum id est septem septies quae simul faciunt quadraginta novem' -- 'And you shall count seven weeks of years, seven times seven years, so that the time of the seven weeks of years shall be to you forty-nine years.' Jerome's 'id est' is not in the Heb (or RSV) but the phrase SHBX SHBTT SHNYM 'seven sabbaths of years' is clearly meant to be pointed in some way, and not just a way of saying something numerical like 'group of seven'. Even the Gk word E(BDOMAS is somewhat obscure [cf. Chantraine s.v. e(pta at end]. Finally, it is already traditional language in Jerome’s time and remains so: NJB, Lev. 25:8 'You will count seven weeks of years--seven...' [note their long dash = Jerome’s id est] and then Dan 9:24 'Seventy weeks are decreed...'.
(2) The quotation marks represent a line of vertical squiggles against this paragraph in the left-hand margin in 'O'.

[244/245]
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Alexandrians
Jews   BC   Romans        
Alexandrians
Jews   BC
      the successor to him; when he was murdered after a year, he reappointed Ananelus to the priesthood.             12   a Until Cleopatra, the Ptolemies, who were called Lagids, reigned in Egypt for 295 years. 19     32
                               
                               
      a The movements of the moon, according to the Romans, discovered. *                 b Artorius the doctor of Augustus perishes after the victory of Actium in a shipwreck. *          
                               
  11   b Treaty of Antony and Augustus. 18   1   23                
      c The Romans planted colonies.             13   c Some compute the first year of the monarchy of Augustus from this point. 20     31
      d Augustus celebrated a triumph for his land-battle triumph.                          
                               
      e Antony handed over Arabia to Cleopatra.                 d Caesar called Augustus, from whom the month Sextilis received the name of Augustus.          
                               
      f The beginning of the third disagreement of Augustus and Antony, because the sister of Caesar having been repudiated, he had married Cleopatra. (*)                          
                  14   e With a huge pomp of triumphs, Augustus entered Rome, and led before his chariot the children of Cleopatra, the Sun and the Moon. 1 21     30
                               
                               
      g Nicetes, Hybreas, Theodorus and Plution are considered the most noble Greek teachers of the rhetorical art. *                          
                  15   f Nicopolis founded near Actium and the Actian games established. 22     29
                      The power of the Alexandrians ends.
~~~~~~
   
                      g Augustus enacts many laws for the Romans.    
  187th Olympiad                          
      h Cleopatra and Antony kill themselves, and Egypt is made a Roman province, which Caius Cornelius Gallus first headed, about whom Virgil writes in the Eclogues. (*)             188th Olympiad          
                      h A census of Rome having been taken, there were found to be 4,164,000 Roman citizens.          
                      2        
                               
                  16   i Colonies planted. 23 2   3   28
                      k Anaxilaus Larisseus, a Pythagorean          

(1) Dio Cassius 51.21.8. The reference is to Alexander Helios (the 'sun') and Cleopatra Selene (the 'moon').
(2) This number is missing in 'O'.
(3) This number is coloured red in 'O'.

[246/247]
  Romans                  Jews   BC   Romans                  Jews   BC
      and a magician, is expelled from the City and from Italy by Augustus. *               was offered to him, declined.        
                21    a Quintilius of Cremona, a friend of Vergil and Horace, dies. *   11   23
      a M. Terentius Varro the philosopher dies when nearly a nonagenarian. *                      
                    b Augustus deprived the Cyzicenes of their liberty.    
1990 17   b Thebes of Egypt razed to the ground.   7   27   22    c Pylades, the Cilician writer of pantomime, although the ancients themselves had sung and danced, was the first in Rome to make a chorus and pipe make music. *   12   22
      c Cornelius Gallus the Frejusian poet, by whom Egypt was first governed, as we said above, killed himself with his own hand in the 43rd year of his life. *                      
                           
                           
                23   d Sent by Augustus, Tiberius took possession of Armenia.   13   21
      d Trallis destroyed in an earthquake.                      
  18   e The Indians through a deputation requested friendship with Augustus. *   8   26       e Atratinus, who had prosecuted Caelius at the age of seventeen, is considered important among orators. In the end, due to the weight of his illnesses, having died voluntarily in the bath, he left Augustus his heir. *        
                           
      f Messala Corvinus, when he was first made urban prefect, relinquished his magistracy on the sixth day, claiming that it was an unjust form of authority. *                      
                           
                           
                190th Olympiad        
  19   g Augustus makes the Calabri and the Gauls subject to taxation.   9   25   24    f The Cantabri, initiating an insurrection, are crushed.   14   20
                           
      h Munatius Plancus, a student of Cicero, is considered notable as an orator; who, when he was in charge of Gallia Comata, founded Lyons. *           25    g Herod in Jerusalem constructed many and great buildings.   15   19
                           
                26    h Vergil dies in Brundisium, when Sentius Saturninus and Lucretius Cinna were consuls. His bones, having been taken to Naples, are buried within the second mile-marker of that city, with this very epitaph written above it, which he himself had dictated as he lay dying:   16   18
                           
  189th Olympiad                      
  20   i Marcus Lollius makes Galatia a province.                      
                           
      k Augustus, when the monarchy                      
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  Romans                  Jews   BC   Romans                  Jews   BC
      "Mantua gave birth to me;
Calabria carried me off;
Now Parthenope holds me.
I sang of pastures, the country and leaders." *
              a Agrippa captures Bosphorus.