The Egyptian Chronicle

[43] How the Egyptians chronicled [their past], and how Egyptian chronology includes that of the Ethiopians and [the chronology of] the Ptolemies' rule in Egypt and Alexandria.

After discussing the chronologies of the Chaldeans, Assyrians, and Hebrews, it is time to pass to the chronology of the Egyptians.

Diodorus in the first book of the Bibliotheca [1.44] wrote [g196]:

Some of them relate fabulous stories claiming that initially gods and heroes ruled Egypt for a period of somewhat less than 16,000 years. The last god to rule there was Horus, Isis' son. Then humans ruled that land as kings, they say, during the time of Myris. And this has continued for somewhat less than 5,000 years, through the 180th Olympiad [60-57 B.C.], when we visited Egypt. At that time, Ptolemy, called the New Dionysus, was ruling [g197].

For most of this period, [the Egyptians'] own kings ruled the land. However, for a small portion [of time], Ethiopians, Persians, and Macedonians [ruled]. Only four Ethiopian [kings] ruled, and not contiguously at that, rather, [they ruled] at separate times, and for a total of slightly less than 36 years. Persian domination was established by Cambyses who forcibly subdued [the Egyptians]. [Persian rule] lasted for 135 years and was ended by the rebellion of the Egyptians when they could no longer bear the harshness of [Persian] rule and the insults to their country's gods. After this the Macedonians and their descendants ruled for 276 years. For all the rest of the time native kings ruled, [g198] 470 kings and 5 queens.

The priests kept records ahout all of them in their temple archives, which were transmitted continuously from ancient times from generation to generation. They described each one's bravery and valor, personality and triumphs, and whatever else they accomplished in their periods. However it is unnecessary and even pointless for us to write down what each one wrought, since some of them, even in their own day, were considered useless.

This according to Diodorus. It is fitting and proper to add to this Manetho's account of the Egyptians, since his history seems quite reliable [g199].

[44] From the Egyptian records of Manetho, who wrote a three-volume work about the gods, demi-gods, spirits, and the mortal kings who ruled over the Egyptians, to the time of the Persian king Darius.

The first being among the Egyptians was Hephaestus, who discovered fire for them. He was succeeded by the Sun (Arm. Aregakn), (who was succeeded by Agathodaemon, followed) by Cronos, followed by Osiris. Then came Typhon, Osiris' brother, then Horus, who was the son of Osiris and Isis. These [entities] were the first rulers of the Egyptians. After them, one ruler succeeded the next until the time of Bidis, for a period of 13,900 years. This [was calculated] as lunar years of 30 days each, for what we now call a month was called a year in those days.

After rule by the gods, a race descended from the gods ruled for 1,255 years. Then other kings ruled for 1,817 years. After them 30 kings from Memphis ruled for 1,790 years. Then 10 other kings, from Thinis, ruled for 350 years. Then, for 5,813 years, the kings were spirits and demi-gods. This makes a total of 11,000 years--lunar years, that is, months.

The Egyptians calculate a total of [g200] 24,900 lunar years--2,206 solar years--to the [rule of the] gods, demi-gods, and spirits. If you compare this [calculation] with [similar calculations of] Hebrew chronology you will get almost the same figure. For among the Hebrews Aegyptus is called Mizraim, and he lived a long time after the flood. Because it was after the flood that Noah's son Ham became the father of Aegyptus, or Mizraim; and at the time of the dispersal of the peoples, he went to Egypt, as its first inhabitant. According to the Hebrews 2,242 years elapsed from Adam to the flood.

Be this as it may, the Egyptians still boast of their great antiquity before the flood. They say that they had gods, demi-gods, and spirits [as rulers in remote antiquity]. If we convert to months the years calculated by the Hebrews, we get over 20,000 lunar years. So when we count the "years" from the first man [Adam] until Mizraim, the Hebrew calculation is approximately the same [as the Egyptian]. Mizraim was first among the Egyptians, and the first dynasty is presumed to descend from him.

Despite this, if the number of years seems excessive, we must [g201] examine the reasons for it. It is conceivable that there were many kings ruling in Egypt simultaneously. For they say that [kings from] Thinis, Memphis, Sais, Ethiopia and elsewhere ruled. It may be that these dynasties did not rule in succession to each other, as is the norm, but in different places at the same time. As a consequence of this, the total number [of kings] is very large. Let us leave this issue, however, and move on to the details of Egyptian chronology.

After the [period of] spirits and demi-gods [g202], the First Dynasty appeared, consisting of 8 kings. The first and most noble of them was Menes. Beginning with him, we shall list the succession of kings from each generation [g203].

[45] 1st Dynasty

Menes of Thinis and his seven descendants.

[Menes], whom Herodotus [in The Histories 2.4] calls Min, ruled for 30 (or 60?) years. He took the army beyond the borders of his land seeking glory and renown. A hippopotamus made off with him.

Athotis, his son, ruled for 27 years. He built a palace in the city of Memphis. He was skilled in medicine, and wrote about how to conduct autopsies.

Chechenes, his son, [ruled for] 39 years.
Venephes, 42 years. In his reign a famine gripped [g204] the land. He built the pyramids near Cocome.
Usaphais, 20 years.
Niebais, 26 years.
[Se]mempses, 18 years. During his reign numerous abominations and corruptions occurred.
Vbienthis, 26 years.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 252 years.

2nd Dynasty

9 kings.

First was Bochus. During his reign an enormous fissure opened up in Bubastis and many people perished.

Then Caechous, in whose reign Apis and Mnevis and [g205] the goat of Mendes were honoured as gods.
Then Biophis, during whose reign women got the right to rule as monarchs.

After [Biophis], three other kings ruled, but nothing noteworthy was accomplished during their reigns.

During the reign of the seventh king, it is fabulously related that for eleven days the Nile ran with honey mixed with water.

Then Sesochris [ruled] for 48 years. He is said to have been 5 cubits and 3 palms tall.
During [g206] the reign of the ninth king, nothing noteworthy occurred.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 297 years.

[46] 3rd Dynasty

8 kings of Memphis.

Necherochis. In his reign the Libyans revolted from the Egyptians, but when the moon unexpectedly grew in size, they were moved by fear and went back into service [to the Egyptians].

Sesorthus. He was called Asclepius by the Egyptians because of his skill in medicine. He discovered methods of building with hewn stone, and also was interested in writing.

The other six kings achieved nothing worthy of mention.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 197 years.

4th Dynasty

17 kings of Memphis, from another line.

Suphis was the third monarch. He built the largest pyramid, the one Herodotus [in The Histories 2. 124] [g207] claims was built by Cheops. At one time [Suphis] had been hostile toward the gods, but he subsequently regretted this and wrote a sacred book which the Egyptians hold in great esteem.

Nothing noteworthy has been recorded about any of the other kings [of this line].

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 448 years.

5th Dynasty

31 kings of Elephantine.

Othoes was the first king [of this group]. He was slain by his attendants.
Phiops, the fourth king, began his reign at the age of six and ruled until he was one hundred.

[RB--From this point Eusebius (or Manetho) does not consistently provide dynasty totals.]

[47] 6th Dynasty

A woman by the name of Nitocris ruled next. It is said that she was braver than any man of her day and more beautiful [g208] than any contemporary woman, fair haired and red cheeked. The third pyramid is said to have been built by her.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 203 years.

7th Dynasty

5 kings from Memphis.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 75 years.

8th Dynasty

5 kings from Memphis.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 100 years.

9th Dynasty

[g209] 4 kings from Heracleopolis, who ruled for 100 years.

Achthoes was the first [of this dynasty]. He was harsher than any of his predecessors, and worked crimes throughout the entire country of Egypt. Subsequently he became mad and was killed by a crocodile.

10th Dynasty

19 kings from Heracleopolis, who ruled for 185 years.

11th Dynasty

6 kings from Diospolis, who ruled for 43 years. After them Ammenemes reigned for 16 years.

Manetho's first book concludes here. One hundred ninety-two kings [were described], reigning for a total of 2,300 years [g210].

[48] From the Second Book of Manetho.

12th Dynasty

7 kings from Diospolis.

Sesonchosis the son of Ammenemes, 46 years.

Ammanemes, 38 years. He was killed by his own eunuchs.

Sesostris, 48 years. Supposedly he was 4 cubits, 3 palms and 2 digits tall. He conquered all of Asia in nine years, as well as Europe as far as Thrace. Everywhere he erected monuments to show his control over the nations; he depicted men's genitals on the columns for brave nations, and women's genitals for cowardly nations. Therefore the Egyptians [g211] evaluated him as coming after Osiris.

Lamares, 8 years. He built the maze at Arsinoite for his own tomb. His descendants ruled for 42 years.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 245 years.

13th Dynasty

60 kings of Diospolis, who ruled for 453 years.

14th Dynasty

76 kings of Xois, who ruled for 484 years.

15th Dynasty

15 kings of Diospolis, who ruled for 250 years.

[49] 16th Dynasty

5 kings of Thebes, who ruled for 190 years [g212].

17th Dynasty

A dynasty of shepherds who were Phoenician brothers, foreign kings who took Memphis.

Saites was first, 19 years. The district of Saite was named after him. Then they established a city in the district of Sethroite from which they advanced and conquered [g213] the Egyptians.

Bnon, second, 40 years.
Archles, years.
Apophis, 14 years,

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 103 years. Joseph seems to have appeared during the time of these kings.

[50] 18th Dynasty

14 kings from Diospolis.

Amosis, 25 years.
Chebron, 13 years.
Ammenophis, 21 years.
Misphres, 12 years.
Misphragmuthosis, 26 years.
Tuthmosis, 9 years.
Amenophis, 31 years. He [g214] is the one believed to be Memnon, the talking statue.
Orus, 38 years.
Achencherses, 16 years. In his reign, Moses as general of the Jews, took them out of Egypt.
Acherres, 8 years.
Cherres, 15 years.

Armais, also called Danaus, 5 years. Afterwards he was expelled from Egypt, and fled from his brother Aegyptus to Greece. He captured Argos and became king of the Argives.

Rhamesses, also called Aegyptus, 68 years.
Amenophis, 40 years.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 348 years [g215].

18th Dynasty

5 kings from Diospolis.

Sethos, 55 years
Rhampses, 66 years
Amenephthis, (?) 40 years
Ammenemes, 26 years
Thuoris, 7 years. Homer [Odyssey 4.126] calls him Polybus, the husband of Alcandra. In his reign Troy was captured.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 194 years.

In sum, the second book [g216] of Manetho contains 92 kings who reigned for a total of 2,121 years.

[51] From the Third Book of Manetho.

20th Dynasty

12 kings from Diospolis, who ruled for 172 years.

21th Dynasty

7 kings from Tanis.

Smendis, 26 years.
Psusennes, 41 years.
Nephercheres, 4 years.
Amenophthis, 9 years.
Osochor, 6 years.
Psinaches, 9 years.
Psusennes, 35 years.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 130 years [g217].

22nd Dynasty

3 kings from Bubastis.

Sesonchosis, 21 years.
Osorthon, 15 years.
Tacelothis, 13 years.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 49 years.

23rd Dynasty

3 kings from Tanis.

Petubastis, 25 years.
Osorthon, whom the Egyptians called Heracles, 9 years.
Psammu-s, 10 years.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 44 years.

24th Dynasty

Bocchoris from Sais, 44 years. In his reign, a lamb spoke..

[52] 25th Dynasty, Ethiopian

3 kings.

Sabacon, who captured Bocchoris and burnt him alive, ruled for 12 years.
Sebichos, his son, [g218] 12 years.
Taracus, 20 years.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 44 years.

26th Dynasty

9 kings from Sais.

Ammeres the Ethiopian, 12 years.
Stephinathis, 7 years.
Nechepsos, 6 years.
Nechao, 8 years.
Psammetichus, 44 years.
Nechao II, 6 years. He captured Jerusalem, and took king Jehoahaz back as a prisoner to Egypt.
Psammuthes (Psammetichus) II, 17 years.
Vaphres, 25 years. The remaining Jews fled to him after Jerusalem had been captured by the Assyrians.
Amosis, 42 years.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 167 years [g219].

27th Dynasty

8 kings from Persia.

Cambyses, in the 5th year of his reign, ruled the Egyptians for 3 years.
the magi, 7 months.
Darius, 36 years.
Xerxes, the son of Darius, 21 years.
Artaxerxes, 40 years.
Xerxes II, 2 months.
Sogdianus, 7 months.
Darius, the son of Xerxes, 19 years.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 120 years and 4 months.

[53] 28th Dynasty

Amyrtaeus of Sais, 6 years..

29th Dynasty

4 kings of Mendes.

Nepheretes, 6 years.
Achoris, 13 years.
Psammuthes, 1 year.
Muthes, 1 year.
Nepherites, 4 months.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 21 years and 4 months [g220].

30th Dynasty

3 kings from Sebennytus.

Nectanebis, 10 years.
Teos, 2 years.
Nectanebus, 8 years.

Altogether [these kings] reigned for 20 years.

31st Dynasty

3 kings from Persia.

Ochus in the 20th year of his reign ruled over Egypt, for 6 years.
Arses, the son of Ochus, 4 years.
Darius, who was killed by Alexander of Macedon, 6 years.

All this is from the third book of Manetho.

[54] From this point, the information comes from Greek authors, because the kingdom of the Egyptians went into decline. Yet, since we still possess further information from the books of Manetho contained in the writings of Flavius Josephus, which he included when describing the ancestors of the Hebrews, I think it will be good [g221] to include what he put down in his own words. The following [passage] is from the first book of his Antiquities of the Jews. [RB: it is from Josephus' Against Apion Book I.14-16. The translation below is from the Whiston edition. The extant works of Flavius Josephus including Antiquities of the Jews, Against Apion, and other writings are available on another page of this website.]
I shall begin with the writings of the Egyptians; not indeed of those that have written in the Egyptian language, which it is impossible for me to do. But Manetho was a man who was by birth an Egyptian, yet had he made himself master of the Greek learning, as is very evident; for he wrote the history of his own country in the Greek tongue, by translating it, as he saith himself, out of their sacred records [g222]; he also finds great fault with Herodotus for his ignorance and false narrations of Egyptian affairs. Now this Manetho, in the first book of his Egyptian History, writes concerning us in the following manner.

I will set down his very words, as if I were to bring the very man himself into a court for a witness: "[There was a king of ours whose name was Timaus. Under him] it came to pass, I know not how, that God was averse to us, and there came, after a surprising manner, men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts, and had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country [g223], and with ease subdued it by force, yet without our hazarding a battle with them. So when they had gotten those that governed us under their power, they afterwards burnt down our cities, and demolished the temples of the gods, and used all the inhabitants after a most barbarous manner; nay, some they slew, and led their children and their wives into slavery. At length they made one of themselves king, whose name was Salatis; he also lived at Memphis, and made both the upper and lower regions pay tribute, and left garrisons in places that were the most proper for them. He chiefly aimed to secure the eastern parts, as foreseeing that the Assyrians, who had then the greatest power, would be desirous of that kingdom, and [g224] invade them; and as he found in the Saite Nomos, [Sethroite,] a city very proper for this purpose, and which lay upon the Bubastic channel, but with regard to a certain theologic notion was called Avaris, this he rebuilt, and made very strong by the walls he built about it, and by a most numerous garrison of two hundred and forty thousand armed men whom he put into it to keep it. Thither Salatis came in summer time, partly to [gather his corn, and] pay his soldiers their wages, and partly to exercise his armed men, and thereby to terrify foreigners. This man reigned for fifteen and then died.

[55] After him reigned another [g225], whose name was Beon, for forty-four years; after him reigned rgbanother, called Apachnas, thirty-six years and seven months; after him Apophis reigned sixty-one years, and then Janins fifty years and one month; after all these reigned Assis forty-nine years and two months. And these six were the first rulers among them, who were all along making war with the Egyptians, and were very desirous gradually to destroy them to the very roots. This whole nation was styled Hykos, that is, Shepherd-kings: for the first syllable Hyk, according to the sacred dialect, denotes a king, as is sos a shepherd; but this according to the ordinary dialect; and of these is compounded Hyksos: but some say that these people were Arabians [g226]. " Now in another copy it is said that this word does not denote Kings, but, on the contrary, denotes Captive Shepherds, and this on account of the particle Hyk; for that Hyk, with the aspiration, in the Egyptian tongue again denotes Shepherds, and that expressly also; and this to me seems the more probable opinion, and more agreeable to ancient history. [But Manetho goes on]: "These people, whom we have before named kings, and called shepherds also, and their descendants," as he says, "kept possession of Egypt five hundred and eleven years."

After these, he says, "That the kings of Thebais and the other parts of Egypt made an insurrection against the shepherds, and that there a terrible and long war was made between them." He says further, "That under a king, whose [g227] name was Alisphragmuthosis, the shepherds were subdued by him, and were indeed driven out of other parts of Egypt, but were shut up in a place that contained ten thousand acres; this place was named Avaris."

[56] Manetho says, "That the shepherds built a wall round all this place, which was a large and a strong wall, and this in order to keep all their possessions and their prey within a place of strength, but that Thummosis the son of Alisphragmuthosis made an attempt to take them by force and by siege, with four hundred and eighty thousand men to lie rotund about them, but that, upon his despair of taking the place by that siege, they came to a composition with them, that they should leave Egypt [g228], and go, without any harm to be done to them, whithersoever they would; and that, after this composition was made, they went away with their whole families and effects, not fewer in number than two hundred and forty thousand, and took their journey from Egypt, through the wilderness, for Syria; but that as they were in fear of the Assyrians, who had then the dominion over Asia, they built a city in that country which is now called Judea, and that large enough to contain this great number of men, and called it Jerusalem.

Now Manetho, in another book of his, says, "That this nation, thus called Shepherds, were also called Captives, in their sacred books.[g229]" And this account of his is the truth; for feeding of sheep was the employment of our forefathers in the most ancient ages and as they led such a wandering life in feeding sheep, they were called Shepherds. Nor was it without reason that they were called Captives by the Egyptians, since one of our ancestors, Joseph, told the king of Egypt that he was a captive, and afterward sent for his brethren into Egypt by the king's permission. But as for these matters, I shall make a more exact inquiry about them elsewhere.

But now I shall produce the Egyptians as witnesses to the antiquity of our nation. I shall therefore here bring in Manetho again, and what he writes as to the order of the times in this case; and thus he speaks: "When this people or shepherds were gone out of Egypt to Jerusalem, Tethtmosis the king of Egypt, who drove them out, reigned afterward [g230] twenty-five years and four months, and then died; after him his son Chebron took the kingdom for thirteen years; after whom came Amenophis, for twenty years and seven months; then came his sister Amesses, for twenty-one years and nine months; after her came Mephres, his son, for twelve years and nine months; after him was Mephramuthosis, for twenty-five years and ten months; after him was Thmosis, for nine years and eight months; after him came Amenophis, for thirty years and ten months; after him came Orus, for thirty-six years and five months; then came his daughter Acenchres, for twelve years and one month; then was her brother Rathotis, for nine years; then was Acencheres, for twelve years and five months; then came another Acencheres, for twelve years and three months; after him Armais, for four years and one month; after him was Ramesses [g231], for one year and four months; after him came Armesses Miammoun, for sixty-six years and two months; after him Amenophis, for nineteen years and six months; after him came Sethosis, and Ramesses, who had an army of horse, and a naval force. This king appointed his brother, Armais,, to be his deputy over Egypt." He also gave him all the other authority of a king, but with these only injunctions, that he should not wear the diadem, nor be injurious to the queen, the mother of his children, and that he should not meddle with the other concubines of the king; while he made an expedition against Cyprus, and Phoenicia, and besides against the Assyrians and the Medes. He then subdued them all, some by his arms, some without fighting, and some by the terror of his great army; and being puffed up by the great successes he had had [g232], he went on still the more boldly, and overthrew the cities and countries that lay in the eastern parts. But after some considerable time, Armais, who was left in Egypt, did all those very things, by way of opposition, which his brother had forbid him to do, without fear; for he used violence to the queen, and continued to make use of the rest of the concubines, without sparing any of them; nay, at the persuasion of his friends he put on the diadem, and set up to oppose his brother. But then he who was set over the priests of Egypt wrote letters to Sethosis, and informed him of all that had happened, and how his brother had set up to oppose him: he therefore returned back to Pelusium immediately, and recovered [g233] his kingdom again. The country also was called from his name Egypt; for Manetho says, that Sethosis was himself called Egyptus, as was his brother Armais called Danaus."

[57] This is Manetho's account. And it is evident from the number of years set down by him belonging to this interval, if they be summed up together, that these shepherds, as they are here called, who were no other than our forefathers, were delivered out of Egypt, and came thence, and inhabited this country, three hundred and ninety-three years before Danaus came to Argos; although the Argives look upon him as their most ancient king Manetho, therefore, bears this testimony to two points of the greatest consequence to our purpose, and those from the Egyptian records themselves. In the first place, that we came out of another country into Egypt; and that withal our deliverance out of it was so ancient in time as to have preceded the siege of Troy by almost a thousand years; but then, as to those things which Manetho adds, not from the Egyptian records, but, [g234] as he confesses himself, from some stories of an uncertain origin, I will disprove them hereafter particularly, and shall demonstrate that they are no better than incredible fables.

This is what Josephus relates in his book. One by one he names the kings of Egypt and their chonologies starting at the beginning and continuing until the period of the one named Nectanebus. I have already mentioned Nectanebus previously in the list of kings. After Nectanebus, Ochus the king of the Persians gained control of Egypt, and ruled for 6 years. Then Arses, Ochus' son, ruled for 4 years. After him, Darius ruled for 6 years. Then Alexander of Macedon killed Darius the Persian, and ruled over both the Asians and the Egyptians. Alexander founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt in the sixth year of his reign. After the death of Alexander, his empire was divided between many different rulers, and the Ptolemies became kings of Egypt and Alexandria. The dates of these kings are as follows [g235].

[58] Concerning those who ruled Egypt and the city of Alexandria after Alexander of Macedon. From the writings of Porphyrius.

Alexander of Macedon [died] in the 114th Olympiad [324 B.C.]. He was succeeded by Aridaeus, also called Philippus, Alexander's brother by a different mother. For [g236] he was the son of Philippus and Philinna of Larissa. This Aridaeus ruled for 7 years. He was killed in Macedonia by Polysperchon the son of Antipater.

A year after Philippus took power, Ptolemy (Ptolemy) the son of Arsinoe and Lagus was sent to be governor of Egypt. He was governor for 17 years, and then he was king for 23 years. Thus he ruled for 40 years, until his death. However, while still alive he abdicated in favour of his son Ptolemy, called Philadelphus, and he lived for a further two years after his son had become king. Consequently the reign of this first Ptolemy, called Soter, we take to be 38 rather than 40 years.

He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy, who as we said was called Philadelphus. The son reigned for two years while his father was still alive [g237], and then for an additional 36 years, so we consider his reign to have lasted 38 years, the same as his father's.

He was succeeded by the third Ptolemy, called Euergetes, who reigned for 25 years.
He was succeeded by the fourth Ptolemy, called Philopator, who reigned for 17 years.
He was succeeded by the fifth Ptolemy, called Epiphanes, who reigned for 24 years.

The latter was succeeded by his two sons. The elder was called Philometer and the younger [g238], Euergetes the second. Their combined reigns totaled 61 years. We present their reigns as one due to the confusion of the period, since they were perpetually at war with each, and one was always seizing the throne from the other. First Philometor ruled for 11 years; but when Antiochus invaded Egypt and removed him from the throne, the inhabitants of Alexandria put the younger brother on the throne, forced Antiochus out of Egypt, and freed Philometor. They called that the 12th year of Philometor, and the first year of Euergetes. After that the two kings ruled jointly until the 17th year, but from the 18th year onwards Philometor ruled on his own.

Then the elder brother, who had recently been deposed by the younger brother, was restored [g239] by the Romans. So he ruled over Egypt, and gave the land of Libya to his younger brother. [Philometor] ruled [Egypt] alone for 18 years. He died in Syria, which was also under his rule. At that point Euergetes was called back from Cyrene and named king. Euergetes counted his years from the time he first became king, so he seems to have reigned for 25 years after his brother's death, but officially he reigned for 54 years. The 36th year of Philometor should have been called the first year of his reign, but instead he ordered it to be written as the 25th year of his reign. So the combined length of both their reigns is 64 years, 35 years [g240] under Philometor and the rest under Euergetes. Dividing it up into separate reigns would lead to confusion.

[59] Euergetes II Ptolemid had two sons by Cleopatra, the elder called Ptolemy Soter and the younger called Ptolemy Alexander. First the elder son was brought to the throne by his mother [g241]. She thought he would obey her, so favoured him for a time. But in the sixth year of his reign he murdered his parents' friends. His mother removed him from power because of his cruelty, and he fled to Cyprus.

His mother summoned her younger son from the city of Pelusium, and appointed him joint monarch with her. Thus the younger son and his mother ruled together and the country was governed in both their names. This year was called the 11th year of Cleopatra and the 8th year of Alexander Ptolemy, because Alexander counted his years from the 4th [g242] year of his brother's reign, which was when he started to rule over Cyprus. Thus matters continued until the death of Cleopatra. After she died, Alexander ruled as the sole monarch, reigning for a total of 18 years after he returned to Alexandria, though officially he reigned for 26 years. In the 19th year, after a dispute with his soldiers, he went away to collect an army to bring to Egypt against them. However they pursued him, and under the leadership of Tyrrus, who was a relative of the kings, they defeated him in a naval battle. Alexander escaped by a hairsbreadth and took refuge with his wife and daughter in Myra, a city of Lycia; from there, he crossed over to Cyprus, where he was defeated by the admiral Chaereas, and died [g243].

After [Alexander's] flight, the Alexandrians sent an emissary to his elder brother, Ptolemy Soter, once more giving the throne to him, when he would sail back from Cyprus. He lived another 7 years and 6 months after his return. The entire period after the death of the brothers' father was counted in his name, which was a total of 35 years and 6 months. But if we divide the period precisely , Ptolemy Soter ruled at two different times for a total of 17 years and 6 months, and in between the younger brother, Ptolemy Alexander, ruled for 18 years. The inhabitants of Alexandria were unable to completely delete Alexander's reign from the records, but as far as was in their power they erased all mention of it. This was due to the fact that Alexander with the help of some Jews had gone against them. So they did not count the years of his reign, but instead attributed the entire 36 year period to the elder brother. Similarly, they do not attribute the next 6 months after the death of the elder brother [g244], which make up the complete 36 years, to Cleopatra, the daughter of the elder brother and wife of the younger brother, who took over control of the kingdom after the death of her father. Nor do they formally attribute to Alexander the 19 days in which he jointly reigned with her.

[60] This Alexander, who was living in the city of Rome, was the homonymous son of the younger Ptolemy Alexander and the stepson of Cleopatra. Since there was a dearth of military men in Egypt at the time, he was summoned [home]. He arrived at Alexandria, married the aforementioned Cleopatra, took the kingdom from her against her will, and then murdered her 19 days later. But he himself [g245] was killed for this loathsome deed by a group of soldiers during a military review.

This Alexander was succeeded by Ptolemy called the new Dionysius. He was the son of Ptolemy Soter and the brother of the aforementioned Cleopatra. He reigned for 29 years.

His daughter Cleopatra was the last of the Ptolemid dynasty. She reigned for 22 years.

These reigns also were not continuous from beginning to end, as is found in writings, but each had some interruptions in its course. In the reign of the new Dionysus, his daughters Cleopatra Tryphaena and Berenice, had a three year [g246] reign ascribed to them: one year as a joint reign and the following two years, after the death of Cleopatra Tryphaena, as the reign of Berenice on her own. Because Ptolemy had gone to Rome, and was spending a long time there, his daughters took over the rule of the kingdom, as if he was not going to return, and Berenice had some some of her male relatives as co-rulers. But when Ptolemy returned from Rome, he forget all affection towards his daughter, and, full of rage for what she had done, put her to death.

In the first years of Cleopatra's reign, she shared power with her elder brother Ptolemy and then with others, for the following reasons. When the new [g247] Dionysus died, he left four children, two sons called Ptolemy and daughters called Cleopatra and Arsinoe. He handed over power to the two eldest children, Ptolemy and Cleopatra, who reigned jointly for 4 years. This arrangement would have continued if Ptolemy had not wanted to seize sole power for himself, defying his father's orders. However he died shortly, after being defeated in a naval battle by Julius Caesar, who came to the aid of Cleopatra.

After Ptolemy's death, Cleopatra's younger brother, who was also called Ptolemy, became joint ruler with his sister, according to Caesar's wishes. The next year was called the fifth year of Cleopatra and the first year of Ptolemy, and so it continued [g248] for the following two years, until he died. He died in his 4th year, which was Cleopatra's 8th year, due to Cleopatra's treachery. Thereafter Cleopatra ruled on her own, untill her 15th year. However, her 16th year was also called the first year, because after the death of Lysimachus the king of Chalcis in Syria, the Roman general Marcus Antonius gave Chalcis and the surrounding regions to Cleopatra. And thenceforth for the remaining years until the 22nd year, which was the last of Cleopatra's reign, the years were counted in the same way, so that the 22nd year was also called the 7th year.

Octavius Caesar, also called Augustus, conquered Egypt [g249] in the battle of Actium, and succeeded Cleopatra as ruler of Egypt in the second year of the 184th Olympiad [43 B.C.]. From the first year of the 111th Olympiad [336 B.C.], when Aridaeus Philippus became king, until the second year of the 184th Olympiad [43 B.C.], is 73 Olympiads and one additional year. Thus the total duration of the rule of all the kings of Alexandria, to the death of Cleopatra, is 293 years [g250].

[61] The Ptolemids and the Lengths of Their Reigns.

Alexander of Macedon began his reign in the first year of the 111th Olympiad [336 B.C.]. He founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt, and ruled for 12 years and 7 months. After him, the kings of the city of Alexandria and all of Egypt were:

Ptolemy the son of Lagus, 40 years.
Ptolemy Philadelphus, 38 years.
Ptolemy Euergetes, 24 years.
Ptolemy Philopator, 21 years.
Ptolemy Epiphanes, 24 years.
Ptolemy Philometor, 21 years [g251].
Ptolemy the second Euergetes, 29 years.
Ptolemy Physcon, or Soter, 17 years and 6 months.
Ptolemy Alexander, who was expelled by his mother's father, 3 years.
Ptolemy Philadelphus, returning from exile after the expulsion of Alexander, 8 years.
Ptolemy Dionysus, called Philadelphus, 30 years.

Cleopatra the daughter of Ptolemy, 22 years. In her reign, Gaius Julius Caesar became the first Roman emperor. The next emperor, Octavius Caesar Augustus, called Sebastos in Greek, killed [g252] Cleopatra and put an end to the dynasty of the Ptolemids, who had ruled for 295 years [g253].


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