In the 6th year of Philippus [son of] Aridaeus, which was the third year of the 115th Olympiad [318 B.C.], Antigonus became the first king of Asia [Minor]. He reigned for 18 years, and lived in all for 86 years. He was the most formidable of the kings of that period, and died in Phrygia. All the other rulers had attacked him out of fear of him, in the fourth year of the 119th Olympiad [301 B.C.]. His son Demetrius saved himself by escaping to Ephesus. However he lost control of all of Asia. [Demetrius] was considered the most violent of kings.He was particularly [skilled] in siege warfare, and so was nicknamed "the besieger" [Poliorcetes]. Demetrius reigned for 17 years, and lived a total of [g343] 54 years. Starting from the first year of the 120th Olympiad [300 B.C.], he ruled jointly with his father for 2 years, which were included in the 17 years of his reign. In the fourth year of the [123rd] Olympiad [285 B.C.] he was captured by Seleucus and sent to Cilicia, and was kept in custody by Seleucus in a manner appropriate to a king. He died in the fourth year of the 124th Olympiad [281 B.C.]. Such were the reigns of Antigonus and Demetrius.
At this time Lysimachus was ruling in Lydia opposite Thrace, and Seleucus was ruling in the upper (eastern) regions and Syria. Both of them started to reign in the first year of the 114th Olympiad [324 B.C.]. We shall not describe Lysimachus' reign, but we shall describe what took place during Seleucus' reign.
Now Ptolemy, the first [post-Alexandrian] king of the Egyptians, went to Old Gaza and defeated Demetrius the son of Antigonus in battle. After this he appointed Seleucus as king of Syria and the eastern regions. Seleucus went to Babylonia and defeated the barbarians there; so he was given the name Nicanor, which means "victor". He reigned for 32 years, from the first year of the 117th Olympiad [312 B.C.] until the fourth year of the 124th Olympiad [281 B.C.], and lived for a total of [g344] 75 years. Eventually, he was deceived and killed by his friend Ptolemy, called Ceraunus.
[Seleucus] was succeeded by his son Antiochus, from Apame the Persian. Antiochus was called Soter which means "Savior", and died in the [third] year of the 129th Olympiad [262 B.C.] after he had lived for a total of 54 years and had reigned for 19 years, from the first year of the 125th Olympiad [280 B.C.] until the third year of the 129th Olympiad [262 B.C.].
Antiochus Soter's children by Stratonice the daughter of Demetrius were a son Antiochus, and two daughters Stratonice and Apame. Apame became the wife of [?] while Stratonice was married to Demetrius the king of the Macedonians. When he died, he was succeeded by Antiochus called Theos, in the fourth year of the 129th Olympiad [261 B.C.]. After 19 years, Antiochus Theos fell ill, and died at Ephesus in the third year of the [133rd] Olympiad [246 B.C.], after living for a total of 40 years. He had two sons, Seleucus called Callinicus and Antigonus, and two daughters by Laodice the daughter of Achaeus, of whom one was married to Mithridates and the other to Ariathes. The elder son [g345] Seleucus, who as we said was called Callinicus, succeeded Antiochus and reigned for 21 years, from the third year of the 133rd Olympiad [246 B.C.] until the second year of the 138th Olympiad [227 B.C.].
Later on when he died, Seleucus was succeeded by his son, Seleucus called Ceraunus. However during his lifetime it happened that his younger brother Antigonus refused to accept the state of affairs and tried to take power. Antigonus had help and assistance from [Alexander], the brother of his mother Laodice, who controlled the city of Sardis. He also was allied to the Galatians in two battles. Seleucus won a battle in Lydia, but he was unable to capture Sardis or Ephesus, which was held by Ptolemey. Then Seleucus fought a second battle against Mithridates in Cappadocia, where 20,000 of his men were killed by the barbarians, and he himself lost his life. Meanwhile Ptolemey called Tryphon seized part of Syria, but his siege of Damascus and Orthosia was stopped in the third year of the 134th Olympiad [242 B.C.], [g346] when Seleucus advanced to that region. Antigonus the brother of Callinicus circulated around in greater Phrygia and placed the inhabitants under taxation. Then he dispatched his generals with an army against Seleucus. But he was betrayed by his own volunteers to the barbarians. But he escaped with a few men and went to Magnesia. The next day he fought again and won, with auxilliary military assistance from Ptolemy. He then married the daughter of Zielas. However, in the fourth year of the 137th Olympiad [229 B.C.] he fought twice in the country of Lydia and was defeated, and he warred with Attalus in the region of Lake Coloe. In the first year of the 138th Olympiad [228 B.C.], after a battle in Caria he was forced by Attalus to flee to Thrace, where he died.
Now it happened that Seleucus Callinicus, the brother of Antigonus, died the next year. He was succeeded by his son Alexander, who adopted the name Seleucus, and was called Ceraunus by his troops. Seleucus had a brother called Antiochus. After reigning for three years, Seleucus was treacherously attacked and killed in Phrygia by a Galatian called Nicanor, in about the first year of the 139th Olympiad [224 B.C.]. He was succeeded by his brother Antiochus, whom the army recalled from Babylon. Antiochus was called [the Great] and reigned for 36 years, from the second year of the 139th Olympiad [223 B.C.] until the second year of the 148th Olympiad [187 B.C.] when he [g347] made an expedition to Susa and the eastern provinces, but was killed with all of his nobles in battle with the Elymaeans. He was survived by two sons, Seleucus and Antiochus.
Seleucus succeeded his father in the third year of the 148th Olympiad [186 B.C.], and reigned for 12 years, until the first year of the 151st Olympiad [176 B.C.]. He lived for a total of 60 years. When Seleucus died, he was succeeded by his brother Antiochus called Epiphanes, who reigned for 11 years, from the third year of the 151st Olympiad [174 B.C.] until the first year of the 154th Olympiad [164 B.C.]. While Antiochus Epiphanes was still alive, his son Antiochus called Eupator was made king, when he was only twelve years old, after which his father lived for an additional one year and six months. Then Demetrius, who had been given to the Romans by his father Seleucus as a hostage, escaped from Rome to Phoenicia, and came to the city of Tripolis. Demetrius killed the young Antiochus along with his guardian Lysias, and made himself king in the fourth year of the 154th Olympiad [161 B.C.]; he was called Soter, and reigned for 12 years, until the fourth year of the 157th Olympiad [149 B.C.] when he was slain. He was forced to fight for his kingdom against Alexander, who brought in mercenaries from Ptolemy and other troops from Attalus. But he was killed in battle.
Alexander gained control of Syria [g348] in the third year of the 157th Olympiad [150 B.C.], and ruled for 5 years. He died in the fourth year of the 158th Olympiad [145 B.C.], in a battle near the city of Antioch against Ptolemy, who had come to the aid of Demetrius the son of Demetrius. Ptolemy also was wounded and died in the same battle. The war was continued by the aforementioned Demetrius, the son of Demetrius. Arriving from Seleuceia, he defeated Antiochus the son of Alexander, who was based in Syria and the city of Antioch, and started to reign in the first year of the 160th Olympiad [140 B.C.]. The next year, he gathered troops and set off for Babylon and the eastern regions, to fight against Arsaces. But the next year, which was the third year of the 160th Olympiad [138 B.C.], he was captured by Arsaces, who sent him to be held prisoner in Parthia; so he was called Nicanor, "victor", because he had defeated Antiochus the son of Alexander. He was also called Seripides because he was kept in prison in chains. When the younger brother of Demetrius--who was called Antiochus Sidetes since he was brought up in the city of Side--heard that Demetrius had been defeated and made a prisoner, he left Side and in the fourth year [g349] of the 160th Olympiad [137 B.C.] gained control of Syria, which he ruled for nine years. In the third year of the 162nd Olympiad [130 B.C.] he conquered the Jews, after a siege [of Jerusalem] and put their most select leaders to death.
Arsaces came with 120,000 troops the fourth year of the 162nd Olympiad [129 B.C.],and attacked. Moreover, he tried to make mischief by sending [Antiochus'] brother Demetrius, who had been kept as a prisoner, back to Syria. Now winter was coming on and Antiochus attacked the barbarians in a narrow place. But as the battle grew fiercer he was injured and killed at 35 years of age. [Antiochus'] son Seleucus, who was a lad, had accompanied him. He was captured and taken off by king Arsaces though kept in royal style.
Antiochus the fifth had three sons and two daughters; the first two, the daughters, were both called Laodice. The third, called Antiochus, fell ill and died, like his sisters. The fourth was Seleucus, who was captured by Arsaces. The fifth was another Antiochus, who was raised by Craterus the [g350] eunuch at Cyzicus, where he had fled with Craterus and the rest of Antiochus' servants, through fear of Demetrius. One [of the brothers] had already died, along with his sister, so only Antiochus was left, the youngest of the brothers. He was called Cyzicenus because he lived in Cyzicus. In the second year of the 163rd Olympiad [127 B.C.], Demetrius returned [to Syria]. Thus began his second reign after having been held captive for 10 years. As soon as he returned from captivity, he turned his attention to Egypt. He marched as far as Pelusium, but when Ptolemy Physcon opposed him Demetrius had to retreat, because his soldiers challenged his command and loathed him.
Ptolemy was enraged by this [development] and set up Alexander, the so-called son of Alexander, to be king of Asia. The Syrians called Alexander "Zabinas" [g351] because they thought that he had been bought by Ptolemy to collaborate. Demetrius was defeated in a battle at Damascus, and fled to Tyre, but was refused entry into the city. While trying to escape by boat, he was seized and killed, in the first year of the 164th Olympiad [124 B.C.]. Prior to his captivity he had reigned for 3 years, and after his release he reigned an additional 4 years.
Demetrius was succeeded by his son Seleucus, who died immediately afterwards as a result of his mother's slander. His younger brother Antiochus took charge in the second year of the 164th Olympiad [123 B.C.], and in the third year he defeated Zabinas, who committed suicide with poison because he could not endure the defeat. Antiochus reigned for 11 years, until the fourth year of the 166th Olympiad [113 B.C.]; the one year of his brother Seleucus' reign is also included in this total [g352]. He was called Grypus, which means "hook-nosed", and Philometor. However, he ceded power to the aforementioned Antiochus Cyzicenus--who was his half-brother by the same mother as well as his nephew on his father's side--who attacked him. Thus Grypus gave up his kingdom and took refuge in Aspendus. Thus he was called Aspendius, as well as Grypus and Philometor.
Antiochus Cyzicenus began to rule in the first year of the 167th Olympiad [112 B.C.], after Antiochus [Grypus] fled to Aspendus. But in the second year of the same Olympiad [111 B.C.], Antiochus returned from Aspendus, and seized Syria, while Cyzicenus ruled in another part [Coele Syria]. After the kingdom had been split between them in this way, Grypus remained as king until the fourth year of the 170th Olympiad [97 B.C.] [g353]. He lived for an additional 15 years after his return, so that his reign lasted for a total of 26 years: 11 years on his own, and 15 years after the kingdom had been divided
Cyzicenus ruled from the first year of the 167th Olympiad [112 B.C.], and died in the first year of the 171st Olympiad [96 B.C.], after reigning for 18 years and living for a total of 50 years. Here is how he died. After Antiochus Grypus died at the time which was stated above, his son Seleucus circulated around with an army and seized many cities. Antiochus Cyzicenus brought an army from Antioch, but was defeated in battle. Now his horse carried him into the midst of the enemy. When they were about to capture him, he drew his sword and comitted suicide. Thus Seleucus gained control of the entire kingdom, and captured Antioch.
But the surviving son of Cyzicenus began a war [against Seleucus] [g354]. When their armies clashed at the city called Mopsuestia in Cilicia, Antiochus was the victor. Seleucus fled into the city, but when he realized that the inhabitants had recognized him and were planning to burn him alive, he quickly commited suicide. His two brothers Antiochus and Philippus who were called the twins [Didymi], appeared with an army and captured the city by force. They then destroyed the city to avenge their brother's death. But then the son of Cyzicenus came and defeated them in a battle. While fleeing from the battle Antiochus, Seleucus' brother, rode his horse carelessly and fell into the Orontes River, where he was caught by the current and perished.
Then two others began dueling for the kingdom: Philippus, the brother of Seleucus and son of Antiochus Grypus, and Antiochus, the son of Antiochus Cyzicenus [g355]. Beginning in the third year of the 171st Olympiad [94 B.C.], they fought against each other for control of Syria with select armies, each controlling part of the country. Antiochus was defeated and fled to the Parthians. Later he surrendered to Pompey, hoping to get Syria back. But Pompey, who had received a gift of money from the inhabitants of Antioch, did nothing for Antiochus and allowed to city to be autonomous.
Then the inhabitants of Alexandria sent Menelaus and Lampon and Callimander to ask Antiochus to come and rule in Egypt together with the daughters of Ptolemy, after Ptolemy Dionysus had been driven out of Alexandria. But Antiochus fell ill, and died. Philippus whom we mentioned before, the son of Grypus and of Tryphaena the daughter of Ptolemy VIII, was also deposed. He wanted to go to Egypt, because he too had been invited [g356] by the inhabitants of Alexandria to rule there, but Gabinius, an officer of Pompeius who was the Roman governor of Syria, prevented this. Thus the royal dynasty in Syria came to an end with Antiochus and Philippus.
1. Antigonus was king of Asia, 18 years.
2. Demetrius Poliorcetes, king of Syria and the east, 17 years.
3. Seleucus Nicator [or "Nicanor"], 32 years.
4. Antiochus Soter, 19 years.
5. Antiochus Theos, 15 years.
6. Seleucus Callinicus, 21 years.
7. Seleucus Ceraunus, 3 years.
8. Antiochus the Great, 36 years.
9. Seleucus [Philopator], 12 years [g357].
10. Antiochus Epiphanes, 11 years.
11. Antiochus [Eupator] his son, 1 year and 6 months.
12. Demetrius Soter, 12 years.
13. Alexander, 15 years.
14. Demetrius the son of Demetrius, 3 years.
15. Antiochus Sidetes, 9 years.
16. Demetrius again, 4 years.
17. Antiochus Grypus, 26 years.
18. Antiochus Cyzicenus, 17 years.
19. Philippus the son of Grypus [2 years] [g358].
And with the latter the rule of the kings of Syria ended.
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