After this investigaton, it remains to tell how Corinth and Sicyon were settled by the Dorians. Almost all the peoples of the Peloponnese, except the Arcadians, were devastated by the invasion of the Heracleidae. The Heracleidae [g314], when dividing up the land, selected Corinth and the surrounding area as the best and most choice. They sent for Aletes, and gave the territory to him to rule over. Aletes was a venerable man who and increased the power of Corinth. He reigned as king for 38 years.
Following his death, the firstborn son reigned as king [successively] until the [time of the] tyrant Cypselus, some 447 after the invasion of the Heracleidae.
The first to reign [after Aletes] was Ixion, 38 years.
Then Agelas, 37 years.
Then Prymnis, 35 years.
Then Bacchis, also 35 years. Bacchis was more distinguished than the kings preceding him. Consequently, the kings after him called themselves Bacchidae instead of Heracleidae.
Then Agelas, [g315] 30 years.
Eudemus, 25 years.
Aristomedes, 35 years.
When Aristomedes died, his son Telestes was still a child; and so his uncle and guardian Agemon [ruled] for 16 years.
Then Alexander was king, 25 years.
Telestes, who had been deprived of power, killed Alexander, and ruled 12 years.
Automenes ruled for one year, after Telestes was killed by his relatives.
The Bacchidae, descendants of Heracles who were more than 200 in number, seized power and jointly governed the city; each year they chose one of their number to be leader, in place of the king. They governed the city for 90 years, until the the tyranny of Cypselus, after which they died out [g316].
1. Aletes, 35 years.
2. Ixion, 37 years.
3. Agelas, 37 years.
4. Prymnis, 35 years.
5. Bacchis, 35 years.
6. Agelas, 30 years.
7. Eudemus, 25 years.
8. Aristomedes, 35 years [g317].
9. Agemon, 16 years.
10. Alexander, 25 years.
11. Teletes, 12 years.
12. Automenes, one year.
After this there were annual leaders.
It is difficult to establish the dates between the Trojan war and the first Olympiad, because there were no [lists of] annual rulers at that time either in Athens or in any other city. We will take the kings of the Spartans as an example. According to Apollodorus of Athens, 308 years elapsed from the destruction of Troy [1183 B.C.] to the first [g318] Olympiad [776 B.C.]. Eighty of those years passed before the invasion of the Heracleidae [1103 B.C.]; the rest are covered by the reigns of the kings of the Spartans - Procles, Eurysthenes and their descendants. We will now set down the order of each of the monarchs to the first Olympiad.
Eurysthenes began his reign in the 80th year after the Trojan war, and he was king for 42 years.
After him, Agis reigned for one year.
Echestratus, 31 years.
After him, Labotas, 37 years.
Dorystus, 29 years.
They were followed by Agesilaus, 44 years.
Archelaus, 60 years.
Teleclus, 40 years.
Alcamenes, 38 years. In the tenth year of his reign, the first Olympiad was established, in which Coroebus of Elis won the stadion race.
Procles was the first king of the other house, 49 years.
After him, Prytanis, 49 years.
Eunomius, 45 years.
And then Chariclus, 60 years.
Nicander, 38 years.
Theopompus, 47 years. The first Olympiad occurred in the tenth year of this reign.
In summary, there were 80 years from the capture of Troy until the invasion of the Heracleidae [g319].
1. Eurysthenes, 42 years
2. Agis, one year
3. Echestrates, 37 years
4. Labotas, 37 years
5. Dorystus, 29 years
6. Agesilaus, 44 years.
7. Archelaus, 60 years
8. Teleclus, 40 years
9. Alcamenes, 37 years. In his tenth year, the first Olympiad was established.
In total, 325 years [g320].
The kings from the other house were:
1. Procles, 51 years
2. Prytanis, 49 years
3. Eunomius, 45 years
4. Charicles, 60 years
5. Nicander, 38 years
6. Theopompus, 47 years. In his tenth year, the first Olympiad was established.
In total, 290 years.
1. The Lydians and Maeones, 92 years
2. The Pelasgians, 85 years
3. The Thracians, 79 years
4. The Rhodians, 23 years
5. The Phrygians, 25 years
6. The Cypriots, 33 years
7. The Phoenicians, 45 years
8. The Egyptians, [..] years
9. The Milesians, [..] years
10. [The Carians, .. years]
11. The Lesbians, [..] years
12. The Phocaeans, 44 years
13. The Samians for [..] years
14. The Spartans, 2 years
15. The Naxians, 10 years
16. The Eretrians, 15 years
17. The Aeginetans, 10 years
[The above ruled] until Alexander crossed over the sea.
It is appropriate following this to turn to the kingdom of the Macedonians [g321].
Tthe Macedonian period followed the end of the Assyrian empire. This came after the death of Sardanapallus the last king of the Assyrians.
Before the first Olympiad, Caranus assembled troops from the Argives and the rest of the Peloponnese, and lead this army into the territory of the Macedonians. At that time the king of the Orestae was warring with his neighbours, the Eordaei, and he called on Caranus to help him, promising half of his territory in return, if the Orestae were successful. The king kept his promise, and Caranus took possession of the territory. He reigned there for 30 years, until he died in old age [g322]. He was succeeded by his son Coenus, who was king for 28 years. After him, Tyrimias reigned for 43 years. Then Perdiccas for 42 years. He wanted to expand his kingdom; so he sent [a mission] to Delphi.
A little further on, [Diodorus] says:
Perdiccas reigned for 48 years, and left his kingdom to Argaeus, who reigned for 31 years.
The next king was Philippus, who reigned for 33 years.
Aeropus, 20 years.
Alcetas, 18 years.
Amyntas, 49 years.
He was followed by Alexander, who reigned 44 years.
Then Perdiccas was king, 22 years.
Archelaus, 17 years.
Aeropus, 6 years.
Then Pausanias was king, one year.
Ptolemy, 3 years.
Perdiccas, 5 years.
Philippus, 24 years.
Alexander, [who] fought against the Persians, for more than 12 years.
Thus the most reliable historians derive the Macedonian kings from [g323] Heracles. From Caranus, who was the first to rule all the Macedonians, until Alexander, who conquered Asia, 24 kings reigned for a total of 453 years.
1. Caranus reigned 30 years.
2. Coenus, 28 years.
3. Tyrimias, 43 years.
4. Perdiccas, 48 years.
5. Argaeus, 38 years.
6. Philippus, 33 years.
7. Aeropus, 20 years.
8. Alcetas, 18 years. In his time, Cyrus was king of the Persians.
9. Amyntas, 42 years.
10. Alexander, 44 years.
11. Perdiccas, 23 years.
12. Archelaus, 24 years.
13. Orestes, 3 years.
14. Archelaus, 4 years.
15. Amyntas, one year.
16. Pausanias, one year.
17. Amyntas, 6 years [g324].
18. Argaeus, 2 years.
19. Amyntas, 18 years.
20. Alexander, one year.
21. Ptolemy of Alorus, 3 years.
22. Perdiccas, 6 years.
23. Philippus, 27 years.
24. Alexander the son of Philippus, 12 years .
After Alexander the son of Philippus, the following kings [g325] ruled Macedonia and Greece until the Macedonian kingdom was taken over by the Romans.
After Alexander the Macedonians made Aridaeus king. He was the son of Philippus and Philinna of Thessaly, king [and was appointed] because they liked Philippus' family, despite the fact that Aridaeus was the son a courtesan and he was weak-minded. He began to reign, as we said, in the second year of the 114th Olympiad [323 B.C.]. He is considered to have reigned for 7 years, because he lived until the fourth year of the 115th Olympiad [317 B.C.].
Now Alexander [the Great] left two sons, Heracles the son of Barsine the daughter of Pharnabazus, and Alexander the son of Roxane the daughter of Oxyartes the Bactrian; this Alexander was born about the time of his father's death [g326], at the start of Philippus' reign. Olympias, Alexander's mother, killed Aridaeus, but then Cassander the son of Antipater killed her and Alexander's two sons. One he killed by himself and the other he eliminated by ordering Polysperchon to do it. Cassander left Olympias' body where it fell, and forcibly declared himself king of the Macedonians. From that time forth, all the other lords ruled as kings. When the family of Alexander had been eliminated, [Cassander] married Thessalonice the daughter of Philippus. He reigned as king for another 19 years and then died of a wasting disease. His reign, including the year in which Olympias ruled after the death of Aridaeus, lasted from the first year of the 116th Olympiad [316 B.C.] until the third year of the 120th Olympiad [298 B.C.].
[Cassander] was succeeded by his sons, Philippus and Alexander and Antipater, who reigned for 3 years and 6 months [g327] after the death of their father. Philippus, who died at Elateia, ruled first. Then Antipater murdered his mother Thessalonice, who favoured her other son Alexander, and fled to Lysimachus. But Lysimachus put him to death, even though he had married one of Lysimachus' daughters.
Alexander married Lysandra, the daughter of Ptolemy. In a war against his younger brother he sought aid from Demetrius the son of Antigonus, who was called Poliorcetes. But Demetrius killed Alexander, and made himself the king of the Macedonians. The sons of Cassander are considered to have reigned from the fourth year of the 120th Olympiad [297 B.C.] until the third year of the 121st Olympiad [294 B.C.] [g328].
Pyrrhus the king of Epirus--the 23rd in line from Achilleus the son of Thetis--deposed [Demetrius] who had reigned for 6 years, from the [fourth year of the] 121st Olympiad [293 B.C.] until the first year of the 123rd Olympiad [288 B.C.]. Pyrrhus claimed the rule devolvded to him after the end of Philippus' family, because Olympias the mother of Alexander, was also a descendant of Pyrrhus the son of Neoptolemus. [Pyrrhus] ruled the Macedonians for seven months in the second year of the 123rd Olympiad [287 B.C.]. In the eighth month, he was replaced by Lysimachus the son of son of Agathocles, a Thessalian from Crannon who had been an attendant of Alexander. However, Lysimachus was king not only of Thrace and the Chersonese, for he now invaded the neighbouring country of Macedonia and took it.
 Urged on by his wife Arsinoe, Lysimachus killed his own son. He ruled Macedonia for 5 years and 6 months, from the second year of the 123rd [g329] Olympiad [287 B.C.] until the third year of the 124th Olympiad [282 B.C.]. He was defeated by Seleucus Nicator, the king of Asia, at the battle of Corupedium, and lost his life in the battle. However immediately after this victory, Seleucus was murdered by Ptolemy Ceraunus, the son of Lagus and Eurydice the daughter of Antipater,despite the fact that Seleucus was his benefactor and had received him [earlier ]when he was in flight. Now [Ptolemy] ruled over the Macedonians, until he was killed in battle against the Galatians. He reigned for one year and five months, which lasted from the fourth year of the 124th Olympiad [281 B.C.] until the fifth month of the first year of the 125th Olympiad [280 B.C.].
Ptolemy was succeeded by his brother Meleager. The Macedonians quickly deposed Meleager after only two months [g330] however, considering him unworthy. Because no one could be found from the royal line, they appointed as king Antipater, who was the nephew of Cassander and the son of Philippus. After ruling for 45 days he was put to flight by a certain Sosthenes, who did not consider him to be enough of a general to face the invasion that Brennus the Galatian threatened. The Macedonians gave Antipater the name Etesias, because the Etesian winds blow for about as long a time as he was king. Sosthenes also drove off Brennus, and died after ruling for two complete years. After Sosthenes, Macedonia was without a ruler, because the followers of Antipater and Ptolemy and Aridaeus were competing for control of the state, and no one was completely in charge. From the time [g331] of Ptolemy to the end of the anarchy, that is from the fourth year of the 124th Olympiad [281 B.C.] until the [first year of the] 126th Olympiad [276 B.C.], Ptolemy Ceraunus reigned for one year and five months, Meleager for two months, Antipater for 45 days, and Sosthenes for two years. The remainder is considered a period without rulers.
While Antipater was plotting, Antigonus took power. He was the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila the daughter of Antipater, and was called Gonatas because he had been born and brought up at Gonni in Thessaly. Antigonus reigned in total for 44 years. Prior to taking control of Macedonia, he had been king for a total of 10 years. He was declared king in the second year [g332] of the 123rd Olympiad [287 B.C.], and became king of the Macedonians in the first year of the 126th Olympiad [276 B.C.]. [Antigonus] conquered the Greek world with extreme force; he lived for 83 years in all, and died in the first year of the 135th Olympiad [240 B.C.].
[Antigonus] was succeeded by his son Demetrius, who conquered all of Libya and Cyrene. He ruled over all of his father's holdings as sole ruler for 10 years. He took to wife a captive whom he called Aureola/Chryseis, and by her he had a son Philippus, who was the first of the kings to fight against the Romans, causing the Macedonians much woe. After [Demetrius], Philippus succeeded under the superintendecy of a member of the royal line [g333], named Phuscus. [The Macedonians] subsequently made this Phuscus king when they saw that he honorably served as guardian. And they gave him Chryseis as a wife. The sons she bore him he did not raise [to the throne] because he was holding the kingdom in trust for Philippus. And indeed he was succeeded by Philippus, when he died.
 Demetrius, called the Handsome, died in the second year of the 130th Olympiad. Philippus then became king, with the aforementioned Antigonus as his guardian. [Antigonus] died in the fourth year of the 139th Olympiad [221 B.C.]; he had been guardian for 12 years, and lived for 42 years in all. Philippus began to rule without a guardian in the 140th Olympiad [220 B.C.][g334].He reigned for 42 complete years, and died in the second year of the 150th Olympiad [179 B.C.], aged 58 years.
Perseus the son of Philippus killed his brother Demetrius and ruled for 10 years and 8 months, until the fourth years of the 152nd Olympiad [169 B.C.]. Then Lucius Aemilius conquered the Macedonians at Pydna. Perseus fled to Samothrace, but then voluntarily surrendered to the combattants. They transferred him to Alba, where he was kept in custody. He died five years later, and with his death the Macedonians' [independent] rule ended.
At that time the Romans allowed the Macedonians to keep their autonomy, [g335] out of respect for their glorious reputation and their former greatness.
But 19 years later, in the third year of the 157th Olympiad [150 B.C.], a certain Andriscus falsely claimed to be the son of Perseus, and styled himself Philippus. Thus he was known as the false Philippus. With the help of the Thracians he conquered Macedonia. After ruling for a year he was defeated and fled to the Thracians, who surrendered him, and sent him bound to Rome.
Because the Macedonians had been ungrateful, and had aided the false Philippus, the Romans made them tributary in the fourth year of the 157th Olympiad [149 B.C.]. Thus from [the time of] Alexander until [g336] the end, when they became tributary to the Romans, that is from the second year of 114th Olympiad [323 B.C.] until the fourth year of the 157th Olympiad [149 B.C.], the kingdom of the Macedonians endured 43 Olympiads plus two years, for a total of 174 years.
1. Aridaeus, also called Philippus, 7 years.
2. Cassander, 19 years.
3. The sons of Cassander, 3 years and 6 months.
4. Demetrius Poliorcetes, 6 years.
5. Pyrrhus, 7 months.
6. Lysimachus, 5 years and 5 months [g337].
7. Ptolemy Ceraunus, 1 year and 5 months.
8. Meleager, 2 months.
9. Antipater son of Lysimachus, 45 days.
10. Sosthenes, 2 years.
11. No Ruler/Anarchy, 2 years.
12. Antigonus Gonatas, 34 years.
13. Demetrius the Fair, 10 years.
14. Antigonus Phuscus, 12 years.
15. Philippus, 42 years.
16. Perseus, 10 years and 8 months.
17. Self Rule/Autonomy, 19 years.
18. The false Philippus, 1 year.
After this the Romans ruled them [g338].
The Thessalians and Epirus had the same rulers as the Macedonians for a long period. The Romans made them autonomous after the Roman general Titus defeated Phillipus in Thessaly. But they too became tributary to the Romans, and for the same reasons. They too were ruled by Aridaeus, also called Philippus, for seven years after the death of Alexander. Then his successor Cassander ruled over Epirus and the Thessalians for 19 years. After him, his son Philippus for 4 months. Then his brothers Antipater and Alexander, for 2 years and 6 months. And then Demetrius the son of [Antigonus] for 6 years and 6 months. After him, Pyrrhus for 4 years and 4 months. Then Lysimachus the son of Agathocles for 6 years. And Ptolemaeus, who was called Ceraunus, for one year and 5 months. Then Meleager for 2 months. After him, Antipater the son of Lysimachus for 45 days. After him, Sosthenes for one year. Then there was anarchy for 2 years and 2 months, after which Antigonus the son of Demetrius [ruled] for 34 years and 2 months.
 During these years, Pyrrhus took over Antigonus' army and ruled a few regions, but he lost control of them when he was defeated [g339] by Demetrius the son of Antigonus in a battle at Derdia. Soon after this Antigonus died, and his son Demetrius reigned for 10 years. After him, Antigonus, the son of Demetrius who went off to Cyrene and of Olympias the daughter of Pauliclitus of Larisa, [ruled] for 9 years. Antigonus came to the aid of the Achaeans, defeated Cleomenes the king of the Spartans in battle, and liberated Sparta. Therefore the Achaean people honoured him like a god.
After him, Philippus the son of Demetrius reigned for 23 years and 9 months, until he was defeated in a battle in Thessaly by Titus the Roman general. Then the Romans allowed the Thessalians to be autonomous, along with the rest of the Greeks who had been subject to Philippus. For the first year there was anarchy in Thessaly, but then they started to elect annual generals, chosen from the masses.
The first to be elected was Pausanias the son of Echecrates, from Pherae. Then Amyntas the son of Crates, from Pieria; in his year, Titus returned to Rome. Then Aeacides the son of Callas, from Metropolis. Then Epidromas the son of Andromachus, from Larisa, for 8 months only; for the remaining 4 months of the year, the leader was Eunomus the son of Polyclitus, from Larisa. Eunomus was leader again for one year [g340]. Then Aeacides the son of Callas, from Metropolis, for a second time. Then Pravilus the son of Phaxas, from Scotussa. Then Eunomus the son of Polyclitus, from Larisa, for a second time. Then Androsthenes the son of Italas, from Gortona. Then Thrasymachus the son of Alexander, from Atrax. Then Laontomenes the son of Damothon, from Pherae. Then Pausanias the son of Damothon. Then Theodorus the son of Alexander, from Argos. Then Nicocrates the son of Paxinas, from Scotussa. Then Hippolochus the son of Alexippus, from Larisa. Then Cleomachides the son of Aeneus, from Larisa. Then Phyrinus the son of Aristomenes, from Gomphi. In his year, Philippus the king of Macedonia died, and was succeeded by his son Perseus. As we said, Philippus reigned over the Thessalians for 3 years and 9 months, but in all he reigned over the Macedonians for 42 years and 9 months. From the start of the reign of Philippus [Aridaeus] until the death of Philippus the son of Demetrius, that is from the second year of the 114th Olympiad [323 B.C.] until the fifth month of the second year of the 150th Olympiad [179 B.C.], is a total of 144 years and five months.
1. Aridaeus, also called Philippus, 7 years.
2. Cassander, 19 years [g341].
3. Philippus, 4 months.
4. Antigonus and Alexander, 2 years and 6 months.
5. Demetrius, 6 years and 6 months.
6. Pyrrhus, 3 years and 6 months.
7. Lysimachus, 6 years.
8. Ptolemaeus, also called Ceraunus, 1 year and 5 months.
9. Meleager, 2 months.
10. Antipater, 45 days.
11. Sosthenes, 1 year.
12. (Anarchy), 2 years and 2 months.
13. Antigonus, 33 years and 2 months.
14. Demetrius, 10 years.
15. Antigonus, 9 years.
16. Philippus, 23 years and 9 months.
And then the following generals:
Pausanias, Amyntas, Aeacides, Epidromus, Eunomus, Aeacides again, Praviles, Eunomus again, Androsthenes, Thrasymachus, Laontomenes, Pausanias, Theodorus, Nicocrates, Hippolochus, Cleomachides, Phyrinus, and Philippus [g342].
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