334 KG pp. 262-63; "After a short time had passed, they sent Awag on a distant journey to the northeast to their king, called the Khan. For they did the same to all the grandees whom they wished to honor. They sent him to the king and, receiving [their] ruler's command, implemented it, for they were extremely obedient to their king. The prince himself was happy to go, so that perhaps his situation and that of the country be eased somewhat...
"Now Awag went before the great Khan and showed him letters from his commanders and recalled the reasons for his coming, that he had come to him in service. Once the great Khan heard that, he received Awag with affection, gave him a Tat'ar bride, and sent him to his country. He also wrote to his commanders to give Awag his lands and with his help to subdue all the rebels, as happened."
335 Her release was arranged by queen Rusudan's envoy, Hamadola, when the latter himself was on a trip to the Far East (KG p. 292).
336 KG p. 192; Mur. p. 76.
337 KC p. 219; Mur. p. 96.
338 KC p. 220; Mur. p. 96.
339 KC p. 220; Mur. p. 97.
340 KC p. 359. See our Appendix C.
341 KG pp. 364-65. On Het'um's journey see J.A. Boyle's article, "The Journey of He'tum I, King of Little Armenia, to the Court of the Great Khan Mongke", Central Asiatic Journal #9 (1964) pp. 175-89, also Het'um the Historian, p. 47.
342 Lewon (Het'um p. 57); Het'um II (Het'um p. 221); Lewon, paron Het'um, and other princes travelled to Bularghu who treacherously murdered them in 1309 (14CC p. 56).
343 SO p. 155. It was probably during those three years that Smbat learned some of his five languages (SO p.151). Mamikonids visited the Khan in the 1260's (VT p.108).
344 SO p. 166.
345 KG p. 269; GA p. 297.
346 KC p. 192; Mur. p. 77; GA p. 309.
347 KC p. 208; Mur. p. 88.
348 KC p. 214; Mur. p. 93.
349 KG pp. 380, 384, 385.
350 SO p. 170: "...And because [Tarsayich] was a man powerful and intrepid, warlike, and of astounding size, wherever he went he displayed great valor in all warfare: in Khurasan, Syria, Rum, in Hams and Ham, among the Egyptians and in Darband. Nine times personally did he direct battle, as a consequence of which he was honored with many great gifts by the King of Kings and received a golden balish which was flat, the size of a fig, and one lter in weight —for such was the honor of victory."
351 KG pp. 388-89.
352 VA p. 152.
353 SO p. 162; CIA v, III p. 218 (foldout).
354 KC pp. 262-64; Mur. pp. 133-35.
355 KC p. 276; Mur. p. 145.
356 According to BH p. 457, in 1277 some 2,000 Georgians (i.e., Caucasians) were killed in Egypt; KC pp. 278-80, Mur. pp. 183, 146-49; Het'um pp. 183, 58, 59; BH p. 464 mentions 5,000 Caucasian troops fighting in Egypt.
357 KC p. 284; Mur. p. 152.
358 KC p. 285 ; Mur. p. 153.
359 KC p. 296; Mur. p. 162.
360 KG p. 324; Mur. p . 188.
361 KC p. 320-21; VA p. 148.
362 KG p. 390.
363 ibid: "...ew i kalans arar zt'aguhin vrac' zGonc'ayn, ew zdustr iew zXoshak'n, ew zishxann mec zShashnshah, ew zJalaln Hasan zter Xach'enoy, ew zayls bazums patcharhanok' partuc' ew harki, yoroc' bazum ganjs arheal, haziw zercan i mahuane."
364 KG pp. 390-91: "But the pious and virtuous prince Jalal was molested by impossible tortures, as they demanded more taxes from him than he could pay. They put wood on his neck and irons on his feet. They dealt with him in this manner because of his strong Christianity, for all the Muslims were inimical to him and urged Arghun to kill him, saying: 'He more [than others] is hostile to our religion and laws.' For Arghun also was a Muslim. He took [Jalal] to Qazvin. Meanwhile Jalal bore everything with praise, for he was very well versed in scripture, fasting and praying, modest in food and drink and desirous of a martyr's death.
"Now Jalal's daughter Rhuzuk'an, wife of Bora noyin (son of Chormaghun, first general of the Tatars) went to Hulegu's wife [the Nestorian Christian] Toguz khatun to free her father from Arghun's clutches. When the impious ostikan [Arghun] learned this, he immediately sent executioners and had the blessed and just man killed during the night. The impious executioners went and tore Jalal's body into pieces...in 1261/62 (710 A.E.)."
365 KG p. 393: "Now it happened that Zak'are was with Arghun and his many troops in Georgia. And Zak'are went unbeknownst to Arghun and the other soldiers to see his wife who was with her father Sargis, prince of Uxtik', one of the rebels with the Georgian king David. When Arghun learned about this, he notified Hulegu who himself ordered that Zak'are be taken shackled. He heaped other false accusations upon him, ordered him killed, dismembered, and thrown to the dogs. And when his father Shahnshah in the village of Ojun heard the bad news, he became aggrieved and died of sorrow."
366 See below chapter two p. 122 notes 1 and 2.
367 KG p. 260.
368 KG pp. 263-64; GA pp. 321, 323.
369 KG p. 264.
370 KG p. 319: "...yankarcaki xorhurd arareal amenayn awaganin T'at'ar zorun, varhec'an zinu ew kazmec'an arh hasarak kotoral zashxarhs Hayoc' ew Vrac' zhnazandeals iwreanc', vasn ayspisi patcharhi, te apastambel kami t'agaworn vrac' amenayn ishxanok'n...kamein arh hasarak kotorel zamenesin."
371 KG p. 320: "...Mi omn yawag glxaworac'n, or zoravar er amenayn zorun, Chaghatay anun nora, or barekamn er Awagin, ekac' i mej varheal zorac'n ew ase c'nosa. 'Mek' och' unimk' hraman i ghanen kotorel zaynosik, or hnazandeal en mez ew kan mez i carhayut'ean ew harkatuk' en ghanin. Ew irk' apstambut'ean noc'a ch'e chshmarteal. Ard et'e kotoke' znosa arhanc' patcharhi, duk' tayk' patasxani ghanin."
372 KG pp. 320-21: "[The Mongols] attacked Georgia, falling upon many districts of the rebels and non-rebels. They cut down many people and took even more captive; a countless multitude of men, women and children they drowned in the river. And this took place in 1249/50 (698 A.E.)." VA p. 148: "...Countless numbers were killed and enslaved, villages and fields [were destroyed], and they disgraced women in Armenia, but more so in Georgia."
373 BH p. 402; KC pp. 212-15; Mur. pp. 91-92.
374 BH p. 403.
375 BH p. 420.
376 BH p. 425-26.
377 GA pp. 327, 329.
378 KC pp. 258-67; Mur. pp. 129-37.
379 KG p. 313: "...zi zhoghoveal er iwr ars srikays i parsic' ew i tachkac' ork' anxnay gorcein zgorc xakut'ean ew tshnamik' ein arhawel k'ristoneic'."
380 KG pp. 390-91.
381 SA p. 162. Samuel's continuator places the murder in 1272, though the Annals of Bishop Step'annos (MC vol. l p. 44) puts it in 1276. See above ch. two pp. 120-21 n. 1.
382 BH p. 484.
383 BH pp. 483-84.
384 ANM p. 115.
385 For the first decade of the 14th century, surviving colophons speak of persecutions and confiscations at Aght'amar (14CC p. 41), and of Turkmen attacks on Tayk'/Tao (KC pp. 310-12; Mur. pp. 175-77). During the second decade there were destructions of monasteries in parts of northeastern Armenia (14CC p. 66), and at Karin (14CC p. 102, also the martyrdom of bishop Grigor Karnec'i d. 1321/22 ANM pp. 121-27), persecutions in southern Armenia at Aght'amar (14CC p.114), Varaga (14CC p. 136-37), Berkri (14CC p. 144), Sebastia (14CC p. 163). The third decade brought a slight relaxation of the terror, but soon it escalated again (VT p. 164). In the fourth decade, persecution was reported from Iranian Tabriz (14CC p. 283) Lorhi in northern Armenia (14CC p.249), Aght'amar (14CC p. 259), Goght'n (14CC p. 281), and Erzinjan. This last city was attacked by a coalition of Mongols, Turkmens and Kurds (14CC p. 305). In the fifth decade persecutions, brigandage, and massacres continued at Erzinjan (14CC p. 325), Tayk' (14CC p. 327), Bayburt and Tevrike (14CC p. 369), C'ghna (14CC p. 379) and between 1350 and 1360 occurred at Agt'amar (14CC pp. 405, 414), Erzinjan (14CC p. 411), and Bjni (VT pp. 169-70). In the seventh decade there were persecutions, expulsions, massacres and destructions of churches in Hayoc' Jor near Julamerik (14CC p. 458) and Mush (14CC p. 483). Reference to persecutions in the above cities should not be taken to mean that persecutions occurred solely there and solely at that date. Anti-Christian terror was a permanent feature of the 14th century and it was general throughout the Armenian highlands, north, south, east, and west, though its scale and intensity did vary greatly.
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