293 GA pp. 292, 294: ."..When the news of the coming of the Tat'ars was learned, Iwane took the cavalry of the Georgian kingdom and came to Gag, to the great and wise prince Varham [Gageli], son of Plu Zak'are. Taking him with his own army, he went against the Tat'ars. The mighty and great Prince Varham took the right wing and Iwane the left...When the battle was joined, through the influence of Satan, the enemy of Truth, Hamidawla, the lord of Manasa stable, because of some grudge, hamstrung the horse of At'abak Iwane. When the Nation of the Archers saw such dissension amongst them, they grew stronger and attacked the Georgian cavalry, mercilessly killing them."
294 KG pp. 236, 241, 250.
295 KG pp. 238-39: "Ew och' ein karogh zdem unel anhnarin bk'oyn ekeloy, vasn aysorik anjnapah eghen amenek'ean gayt'akghealk' yamroc's ur ew karac'in. Ew nok'a sp'rhealk' arh hasarak end eress dashtac', leranc' ew joroc' ibrew zmarax bazmut'eamb, kam ibrew zanjrew yordut'eamb tegheal i veray erkri ."
296 KC p. 187; Mur. p. 73.
297 KG p. 241-2: "One of the nobles, named Molar noyin, whose lot had fallen over those regions, while they moved from their abode in the Mughan plain, sent a small force of about 100 men who came and encamped by the city of Shamk'or, and blocked the entrance to and exit from it." This city belonged to Vahram and his son Aghbugha who had taken it from the Persians. When the residents sent to Vahram for protection the latter refused and forbade them to resist. "The foreigners' army increased daily until their commander Molar arrived and fought against the city. He filled the trench which surrounded the city walls with wood and stalks, so that they might easily climb onto the walls. But the people threw fire down at night and burned the filler. Now in the morning when Molay noyin saw that, he ordered each of his soldiers to bring a load of soil and to throw it into the trench. When this was done the area became level with the walls.
"Then each soldier applied himself to that part of the city directly in front of him. And they took it, killed all the inhabitants, burned the buildings and took whatever they found there. They then fell upon other fortresses under Vahram's sway: Terunakan, Ergevank', Macnaberd (which belong to Kiwrike Bagratuni, Aghsartan's son), Gardman, and other regions [such as] Ch'arenk.' And another chief named Ghataghan noyin went to Getabak. Now Vahram who was then in Gardman, secretly fled at night to wherever he was able, meanwhile the army of foreigners battled with the foretresses. Those inside them unwillingly provided the Mongols with horses, livestock and whatever else they demanded. The Mongols placed taxes over them and left them...
"But those who took Shamk'or had come with all their baggage to Tawush, Kacaret', Norberd, Gag and the surrounding areas. Placing these regions in great straits, they besieged them" (KG p. 242). See also KC pp. 186-87; Mur. pp. 72-73.
298 KC pp. 188-89; Mur. p. 74.
299 KG pp. 237, 241, 313; GA p. 297.
300 The Armenian and Georgian princes' submission to the [diss. p 175] Mongols is recounted variously by the different sources. KG's account begins in ch. 26, "Concerning Prince Awag's Fall into the Hands of the Tatars." Awag, at the time, was holed up in Kayean fortress where he, and many inhabitants of the district had sought refuge. "The land filled with the troops of foreigners... They settled around all sides of the wall at the base of the fortress and sent messages to Awag to come out to them obediently in service and not to be afraid. Many times they sent to him saying the same thing. Now Awag, desiring to win their approval, gave over to the Tatars his daughter and many goods, so that perhaps they would lift the siege But they took his gifts and still more insistently demanded his presence." The besieged suffered from thirst. "So they gave over to the Tatars their horses and all their livestock, so that they allow some of them to go and bring water for their animals. Undertaking their plan in a body of many men, they went to the water source there. The Tatars blocked their path to the water. They killed no one, but told them to lower down their families and to live among them. Unwillingly and in grief, they brought down their families. They drank water and were kept among the Tatars. The Tatars took the women they wanted and killed their men, leaving others without their husbands.
"As soon as Awag saw that the Tatars did not let off besieging or destroying them, he wished to surrender so that perhaps things would be lighter for the people. So he sent Grigor called Tghay ["Lad"] with flatteries. He was one of the Xach'en azats, the superintendent of Awag's home. [Grigor] was sent in advance of Awag, to go and meet with their leader Chormaghun who had pitched his tent by the shores of lake Geghark'unik [Sewan]. When the great noyin Chormaghun heard this, he was delighted and sent immediately to Itulata, who was besieging Kayean, to speedily come to him and no longer harry the inhabitants of the fortress and district. Itulata took Awag and quickly came to Chormaghun. When Chormaghun saw the prince, he said to him: 'Are you Awag?' The prince replied: 'I am he.' The great commander then asked: 'Why did you not come quickly to me when I entered the boundaries of your land?' The prince responded: 'While you were far away, and my father was living, he served you with many gifts (pataragok'). As soon as my father died, I served you according to my capability. And now that you have come to my land, lo, I have come before you. Do with me what you will.' [To my knowledge no explanation has as yet been offered for this curious passage-RGB]... [Chormaghun] further ordered all his troops not to fight with the fortresses and cities under Awag's domination. And great ease came about in his land and many captives among the azats were freed becauee of him. And Chormaghun gave him all of his land and more besides and established unbreakable friendship with him. Taking Awag and all his troops, Chormaghun marched against the city of Ani" (KG pp. 255-57).
[diss. p. 176] Awag then visited the Khan in Qara Qorum. "When he came back to his land and the commanders implemented the orders of their king, the following men came to the Tatars in service: Shahnshah, son of Zak'are; prince Vahram and his son Aghbugha; Hasan called Jalal, prince of the Xach'en area, and many others. The Tatars gave to each one control over his lands and for the time being, a pardon" (KG p. 263).
In ch. 30, Kirakos describes the conquest of Xach'en, where many people fled to the inaccessible fortress called Hawaxalac ("Perch"). This fortress was taken and its people killed. The Mongols also went against prince Hasan Jalal, the son of the sister of Zak'are and Iwane, who holed up with the population under him in the fortress "which is called Xoxanaberd in Persian. When the Tatars arrived to seize the fortress, they saw that it was not possible to take it. So they called Jalal to them, amicably. And he wisely pleased them. Later, he himself went to them with many presents. The Tatars honored him and gave him back his land and other lands besides, and ordered him to come to them each year for war service, and ingenuously to be obedient to them" (KG p. 269).
According to VA, following the taking of Shamk'or by the Mongols, Vahram of Gag and his son Aghbugha fled from place to place "until they learned that the Tatars spared those people who voluntarily subordinated themselves to them. Then they [Vahram and his son] went and received back from the Tatars those castles and districts they had captured, which were their sep'akan patrimony (hayrenik'). All of them were taken: Tawush, Kacaret', Terunakan, Ergevank', Macnaberd which was [the property] of Asxart'an Kiwrikean, Norberd, [the property] of the royal (t'agaworazn) Vasak; and the impregnable fortress K'awazin; the renowned fortress of Gag and the district built up by king Gagik...Everything was surrendered to them in a short period without toil or labor. For we knew that it was the Hand of the Lord, which, before our very eyes, had given over our land as food for the foreigners" (VA p. 145).
SO: "When the Tatars first came to this land, our districts fell the lot (bazhin) of Aslan noyin. Elikum [Orbelean] was holed up with his people in the impregnable fortress of Hrashkaberd. That Aslan came and circumlocuted the fortress and realized that it was humanly impossible to take it. So he encamped opposite the fortress and sent messages to Elikum, saying: 'Make friends with us; come to us, and you will find many benefits from us. Otherwise, no matter how long you sit on your rock, we shall not quit this land. For God has given us this [land] as patrimony, and when you come forth, it will be the ruin of you and your tun (House).'
"When Elikum heard this, he did not reject the advice, but instead, replying sweetly, he requested an oath. And he went before [Aslan] with numerous gifts. When Aslan saw this, he liked Elikum greatly and received him and made peace" (SO p. 149).
[diss. p. 177] GA: "Thereafter when the wise princes of Armenia and Georgia realized that God had given power and victory to [the Mongols] to take our lands, they then became reconciled, and became obedient to the Tatars and promised to give the taxes, i.e., the mal and t'aghar, and to come out to them with their cavalry wherever they led them. The Tatars, agreeing to this, ceased their killing and destroying the land, and themselves returned to their place, the country of Mughan. But they left a chief named Ghara Bugha to demolish all the fortresses which they had taken. They destroyed to the foundations the impregnable fortresses built by the Tachiks at great cost. This all came to pass" (GA p. 297).
KC: "When atabek Iwane's son, the amirspasalar Awag saw these crimes he sent emissaries to Partaw, where the above-mentioned noyins had encamped for the winter. The latter passed the summer in the mountains of Geghark'unik' and Ayrarat, for at that time, Chormaghun had taken Ani. Awag sent to them emissaries, seeking reconciliation. He promised to go to see them, to serve and to pay taxes, for the preservation of his country; he demanded an oath and assurances. They were delighted and accepted Awag's emissary with affection and swore a firm oath.
"When Awag's emissaries returned and relayed to him all that happened, spasalar Awag went to them, having staked his soul for his lands. He went to Chormaghun, Chaghatai, Baiju and Yusur, who saw and honored him, became intimately acquainted, and appointed guards for [his] cities. In their Ianguage these are called shan.
"Awag's land was thus pacified. When the mandat'urt'-uxuc'es Shahnshah was informed of the reconciliation between Awag and the Tatars, he too wanted to keep his country safely, in peace, and unharmed. He told Awag to notify them that he wanted to go to see the Tatars. The Tatars were informed and agreed to it with joy, and for this too they also swore the golden oath of assurance. Shahnshah also went and saw them. They similarly honored him greatly and returned to him Ani and the land of his they had taken, in its entirety. Then they appointed guards for the interior of the country. They received with honor all the Georgian princes who came [to them] while they ravaged the lands of the disobedient. When Zak'are's son, Vahram Gageli, was informed of this he too sought refuge [with the Tatars]. With reconciliation accepted, his lands also were pacified...However Heret'i and Kaxet'i, Somxit'i and K'art'li and above as far as the city of Karin (Erzerum) were undergoing bitter destruction...[The Mongols] enslaved and raided K'art'li, Samc'xe, Javaxet'i and above as far as Greece (=Rum), Kaxet'i, and Heret'i as far as Darband.
"Forced to this fate by chastisements, all the princes of Georgia, the people of Her-Kaxet'i, of K'art'li, Toreli-Gamrkeli, Sargis T'mogveli an educated and virtuous man, sought refuge with the Tatars, while the Meschs, for the dignity of queen Rusudan did not submit." Chaghatai, enraged, invaded Samc'xe and devastated it. "When there was no strength left, Iwane C'ixisjvarel-Jaqeli, who was also called Ghvarghvare, appealed to queen Rusudan, at her agreement, for him also to seek protection with Chaghatai, to free the country from destruction. He [first bothered to ask her permission] because he was the mechurchlet-uxuc'es and the prince of Samc'xe. The queen agreed and sent him. Then Iwane went and met Chaghatai who received him with honor and appointed guards for the country" (KC pp. 189-91; Mur. pp. 74-76 ).
301 KG pp. 257-60.
302 KG p. 279: ."..And at that time the city was heavily populated, being filled not only with Christians and Tachiks, but all the people from the entire district had assembled there. In the city were countless holy gospels [belonging to] the great and the lowly. The foreigners took them and sold the expensive ones to the Christians in their army, cheaply. In glee they spread through each district, dividing up the churches and monasteries." However, to the credit of the princes, KG notes "May Christ reward the Christian princes Awag, Shahnshah, Vahram's son, Aghbugha, pious Dop''s son, Grigor Xach'enc'i, and their troops. For these princes bought out of slavery as many men, women, and children, bishops priests and deacons as was possible..." (KG p. 280). GA pp. 307, 309: ."..Then the Armenian and Georgian princes took [away] many books, heortologia, martyrologia, the Apostolic works, lectionaries, Acts, and the Gospels written in gold, richly adorned beyond comparison for the edification and adornment of the sons of the new Zion. Whence they took and brought them to the eastern country and filled the monasteries with all the adornments of the Church."
303 KC p. 194; Mur, p. 78: "The Georgians and Tatars swelled up with all sorts of treasures: gold and silver, gold and silver cups and bowls, extraordinary cloths and clothing and so many horses, asses and camels that it is impossible to count them."
304 GA pp. 334, 336: ."..The Armenian troops there with the Tat'ars found many relics of the saints and took them to their land. Now the great prince of Armenia named T'agheadin, from the Bagratuni family, seized a Syrian presbyter and made him confess that he had found the right [hand] of the blessed apostle Bartholomew. With great joy [T'agheadin] took it to his eastern land and put it in his monastery. Afterwards, forced by the great Arcrunid prince named Sadun, he gave it to him. Sadun, lord of Haghbat's great and renowned holy congregation, had the blessed right hand of apostle Bartholomew placed in the holy congregation of Haghbat. And it is in fact there."
305 KG pp. 237-38; VA p, 144; SO p, 149. From Kirakos' narration it is clear that during the conquest of Armenia, the Mongols had a fairly clear understanding of the relative importance of prince Awag [KG p. 256]. Somewhat annoyed by Awag's slowness in submitting, the Mongol noyin Chormaghun showed his displeasure in an episode regarding seating precedence. See KG pp. 256-57.
306 KG p. 265.
307 KG p. 289. Also see Appendix B.
308 KG p. 317.
309 KC pp. 207-8; Mur. pp. 87-88.
310 KC p. 212; Mur. p. 90.
311 KC p. 225; Mur. p. 100.
312 KC p. 250; Mur. p.122. Subsequently king David imprisoned Sargis, but Abaqa-Khan ordered his release. The KC adds: "From this point on, the Jaqelis became loyal to Hulegu" (KC p. 255; Mur. p. 127; also KC p. 297; Mur. p. 164.
313 KC p. 324; Mur. pp. 187-88.
314 SO pp. 155, 157: "Orum yoyzh hawaneal ew mtadiwrut'eamb enkaleal zbansn apa tay zSmbat morn iwroy ew yanjne nma, orum anun Suraxt'ambek koch'iwr, ew ase. Zays me ark'ayuns mez paheac'uk' ew och' tac'uk' ayl umek' ishxel i veray dora. Ew anuanec'in zna Ench'u, aysink'n teruni. Ew hramayec'in kal i drann awurs inch.' Ew yanjnec'in gorcakalac'n tal or est ore yark'unust zrhochikn...Ew ehan zSmbat i durs yamenayn dawt'arac' i Vrac' ew yayloc.' "
315 KG p. 373: "End nma er ew barepasht ishxann Xach'enoy Jalaln, or ert'eal er c'uc'anel zaghets iew tearhn iwr tiezerac', zor kreac' na yArghun ostikanen, or haziw zercaw i mahuanen i sadreloy tachkac'n. Ew et nma gir ishxanut'ean iwroy tirel sep'akanabar ew och' erknch'el yumek'e, zi sirer zna Sart'axn vasn k'ristoneut'ean, zi ew na k'ristoneay er."
316 KC pp. 270-71; Mur, pp. 140-41: "Then all the didebuls of Georgia assembled and took the royal Demitre to the Horde. They went to Shahnsah's son, Iwane, the mandat'urt'-uxuc'es, and he too went to the Horde where they saw to it that Demitre received the reign... [Abaqa] gave the entire kingdom to him, excepting the lands of Sargis J'aqeli. He sent him to Sadun whom king Demitre made atabek...[Speaking of the Pervane's replacement as ruler of Rum]: To him they entrusted the principality of Rum, including Acghur and Samc'xe which had belonged to the Pervane from his [Georgian] wife's dowry, and they bestowed on him Sargis Jaqeli and his son Beka", See also KC p. 297; Mur. p. 164.
317 KC p. 272; Mur. p. 142.
318 KC pp. 222-23; Mur. p. 98. Aknerc'i wrote: "Hulegu-Khan greatly loved the Armenian and Georgian forces because of the extreme bravery which they displayed before him in all battles. Therefore he called them Bahaturs. He selected the young and handsome sons of the great princes of Armenia and Georgia and appointed them as his guards, styling them K'esikt'oyk'—guards with sword and bow" (GA p. 342). The Mongols also tried—obviously with limited success—to co-opt the allegiance of king David Lashaean. From Batu-Khan of the Northern Tatars, David received "a parasol (suk'ur) which no one excepting the Khans and their relations have. [Batu] told Hulegu that with the exception of Hulegu noyin himself, when entering the Horde, no one should stand higher than the [Georgian] king...After the king reached his holdings, he went with great gifts to Hulegu-Khan. When the latter saw him, he received him with honor and placed him in front with the noyins, stipulating his place for standing, sitting, inquiring, and giving counsel" (KC pp. 230-32; Mur. pp. 104-105).
319 SO p. 161.
320 SO p. 168: "zi aynk'an lsogh er Hulawun nma. zi um kamer mah tayr acel, ew um kamer keans shnorher, vasn oro amenayn doghayr i nmane ew amenec'un ach'k' i na hayein."
321 GA p. 348. Both Smbat and Sadun, and others besides, made a point of learning Mongolian. According to SO, Smbat was "a skilled rhetorician, unbeatable at diwan court—for he spoke five languages: Armenian, Georgian, Uighur, Persian, and even Mongolian" (SO p. 151). See also KC p. 248; Mur. p. 120 where Sadun does simultaneous translation of Georgian and Mongolian at court. Grigor Mamikonean also knew Mongolian (KG p. 272).
322 SO p. 170: "ev aynk'an yargeal liner arhaji Apaghay ghanin or bazum angam zark'ayakan handerjn iwr merkac'eal yanjne haguc'aner Tarsayichin yotic' minch'ew c' gluxn, ew zkamarn i hamak oskwoy bazmagin akambk' ew margartok' lc'eal tayr acel end mej nora...."
323 VA p. 147: "Now in the year 1242 Baiju noyin replaced the authority of Chormaghun and took the city of Karin, taking thence Umek, a man venerable, wealthy (mecatun) and fearful of the Lord, as well as his relations, the sons of paron Yohann, Step'annos, and his five brothers." KG p. 363: "But one wealthy merchant was respected by them. He was Umek, whom they called Asil, a benevolent man whom we recalled [above], who lived through the Mongols' destruction of the city of Karin, together with his sons Yovhannes, Step'annos and his brothers. At this time [late 1240's, early 1250's] he was dwelling in the city of Tiflis, and was called the 'father' of the Georgian king David. He was honored by the Khan in writing and by all the [Mongol] nobility. He gave generous gifts to Arghun and those with him, and was much esteemed by him... The sons of Sarawan, named Shnorhawor and Mkrtich', were also prosperous and wealthy."
324 TA pp. 154-55: "In the year 1265 great Hulegu the Il-Khan summoned us by means of a man of the day, Shnorhawor, more prominent than any, especially from among the laity. [He had come] from the governor of the north, Batu, where he went first and was honored, then [he was honored] by Hulegu Il-Khan. [Shnorhawor] took us along with his merchandise and pack animals." On Mongol relations with the Armenian Church, see Appendix C.
325 KG p. 263; KC p. 225; Mur. p. 100.
326 KG p. 391.
327 SO p. 165.
328 SO p. 167; KC p. 251; Mur. p. 123.
329 KC p. 274; Mur. p. 144.
330 KC p. 281; Mur. p. 150. Also KC p. 285; Mur. p. 153.
331 KC p. 293; Mur. p. 160.
332 KC p. 297; Mur. p. 164.
333 Toward the end of the 13th century, despite protestations from the Church, the Armeno-Georgian lords began imitating the Mongol and Islamic practise of polygamy. Consequently a number of potentially powerful alliances were formed. Tarsayich Orbelean, for example, during the lifetime of his first wife, married Mina khatun Xaghbakean of Xach'en (d. 1311) sister of Hasan Jalal (X. 10, 117, 175, 177, 267). One of Tarsayich's daughters was married into another branch of the Xaghbakeans, while a second daughter became the wife of king Demitre's brother Manuel (SO p. 171). Sadun Arcruni took four wives, one of whom was king Demitre's only sister, T'amar (KC p. 278; Mur. p. 147). King Demitre himself had three wives, one of whom was the daughter of the powerful Beka Jaqeli of Samc'xe (KC pp. 282-83; Mur. pp. 130-51). In the final decades of the 13th century, Orbeleans once again married into the Xaghbakean family, and into the family of their rivals, the Arcruni/Mahkanaberdelis (SO p. 179).
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