1 HAP p. 444.
2 The numbers of combatants, even when given are probably quite inflated. According to Ibn al-Athir, in 1048 a Byzantine army of resistance led by Armenian naxarars in Byzantine service was defeated by the Saljuqs in Basen and prince Liparit Orbelean was captured and taken to Persia together with 100,000 captives (HAP pp. 449-50).
3 C.J.F. Dowsett, "The Albanian Chronicle of Mxitar Gosh," BSOAS vol. 21(1958) p. 484.
4 For references and discussion, HAP pp. 497-98.
5 HAP pp. 495-96.
6 AL p. 60: "Hecelazorn anterunch' shrjeal omn i Parss, omn i Yoyns, omn i Virs. Sepuh gundn azatac' eleal i hayreneac', ankeal i choxut'ene, mrhnch'en ur ew en ibrew zkoriwns arhiwcuc' i xshtis iwreanc'."
7 One of David's wives was Armenian, and his son, Demitre, was the issue of that union. MEd p. 447: "Arh sa zhoghovec'an mnac'eal zork'n Hayoc'."
8 MEd pp. 447-48: "ew sa shineac' k'aghak' Hayoc' i yashxarhn Vrac', ew hastateac' ekeghec'is ew vanorays bazums ew anuaneac' zanun k'aghak'in Gawrhay. ew uner mecaw uraxut'eamb ew c'ncut'eamb zamenayn azgn Hayoc' ."
9 Juansher pp. 122-23: "Furthermore, he wanted to unite the Armenians and Georgians [religiously]. He summoned Yovhannes, kat'oghikos of K'art'li, and Arsenios K'art'lec'i, translator of Georgian and Greek, and the bishops and vardapets of Armenia, and held a meeting. They examined [matters] from morning until evening, but did not accept each other."
10 HAP pp. 516-18, 507, 509-510.
11 Allen p. 229.
12 On the Qipchaqs in Georgia, see M. D. Lordkipanidze, Istoriia Gruzii Xi-nachala XIII veka (Tbilisi, 1974).
13 H.G. Margaryan, "Mijfeodalakan payk'are Georgi III-i zhamanak ev K'urd amirapete [The Inter-Feudal Struggle in the Time of Georgi III, and the Amirapet K'urd]," Lraber #11 (1975) p.50.
14 ibid. p. 49.
15 Allen p. 253.
16 Margaryan, pp. 51-52.
17 SO pp. 128-35.
18 KG pp. 151-52: "Isk Kiwrike Bagratuni, or i Lorhi k'aghak'i, zamenayn zhamanaks iwr kac'eal enddem vrac', i hastatut'ean paher zhayrenis iwr. Ew yet mahuan nora ordik' iwr dawealk' i vrac' elealk' i tane hayrenac', gnac'in i parsiks, Dawit' ew Abas, ew arhnun i noc'ani i zharhangut'iwn zTawush ew zMacnaberd ew zayl teghis. Apa yet awurc' arhun darjeal parsikk' i noc'ane zTawush, ew nok'a bnaken i Macnaberd..."
19 Dowsett, op.cit. , p. 488.
20 ibid. pp. 488-89: "When he became king, Giorgi made to seize prince Vasak, for he bore him a grudge, for when he was governor of the town he did not honour him as much as his brother Dawit' and would not serve and obey him; other princes of Georgia also speaking ill of him, Vasak fled with his brothers and went to T'iodupolis which is now called the town of Karin [Erzerum]. And the emir named Saltux received him with joy and honor, for when Saltux was captured by the Georgian army whilst he begeiged the town of Ani and was brought before King Demetre in Tiflis, Vasak did him many services; because of this, he honored them with gifts and granted them authority over many villages. And having been there for some months, Vasak died and was buried in the church called Astuacacin (Mother of God) in the town. And his standard and clarior and authority were given to his brother called K'urd, and he remained there in great esteem."
21 Margaryan, p. 49. Margaryan notes that Kayean until 1176-77 belonged to prince Hasan, from 1185-91 to Vardan Dadian. After 1191 it belonged to Iwane Zak'arean. He suggests that Kayean went to the holder of the office of msaxurt'-uxuc'es, just as Lorhe went to the amirspasalar (p. 59).
22 HAP p. 545; S. Eremyan, Amirspasalar Zak'aria Erkaynabazuk (Erevan, 1944) p. 17: mandaturt'-uxuc'es: "vezier of the seal and head of the queen's bodyguard." The following is a partial listing of Zak'arid family titles compiled from inscriptions and colophons.
d. 1212 Zak'are mand. + amirsp.; atabek Iwane (d.1227).
1228/29 (son of Zak'are) Shahnshah (d.1261), mand.; (son of Iwane) Awag, amirsp. (VT p. 71).
1230/31 amirsp. (VT pp. 73-74).
1231/32 amirsp. (VT p. 74).
1246/47 spasalar (VT p. 90).
1251/52 amirsp. (CIA v. I p. 15).
Atabek and amirsp. (CIA v. I p. 64).
1258/59 mand. (VT p. 101).
1273/74 atabek + amirsp. Paron Sadun (VT p. 115) (d.1284).
1285/86 spasalar Xarkrceal "son of the great Shahnshah" (VT p. 126).
1291/92 amirsp. Mxargrjel, son of Shahnshah (VT pp. 140-41).
1300/01 paronut'iwn of atabek amirsp. Shahnshah (CIA v. I p. 68).
1321 atabek Shahnshah, married to his cousin Xwandze (VT p. 160).
1336/37 atabek Varham (brother of above), paron of parons (VT pp. 165-66).
1342/43 patron Atabek Varham (VT p. 167).
1358/59 atabek Zaza (VT pp. 169-70).
1396/97 in the paronut'iwn of atabek Iwane (14CC p. 614).
23 HAP p. 544, VT p. 47; occasionally Zak'arid women are styled queens: VT pp. 71, 74; X. pp. 6-7.
24 HAP p. 547.
25 HAP p. 550.
26 VT p. 51.
27 HAP p. 549. The following is a partial listing of 13-14th century titles mentioned in inscriptions and colophons.
1207/08 Vach'e, "prince of princes" (VT pp. 48, 58).
[1217/18] Vach'e, "prince of princes" (VT p. 61).
1210/11 "the great sparapet Bubak" (CIA v. IV p. 69).
1214/15 "the great prince of princes, K'urd" (VT p. 56).
1219/20 Vasak Xaghbakean, "koghmnapah (lieutenant) [for the lands] from Garhni to Bargushat (CIA v. III p. 123).
1223/24 prince of princes Bubak (VT p. 67).
1225/26 "I, Dawit'...atabek of the great and mighty prince Sadun" (VT p. 69).
1228/29 hechup Grigor (VT pp. 71-72).
1230/31 K'ap'ik...general of amirspasalar Shahnshah (VT pp. 73-74).
1232/33 Colophon, Yov. Yish., pp. 886-86 "prince of princes patron Xawrhas."
1236/37 Col. Yov. Yish., pp. 909-911: "prince of princes patron Dawit' Shot'[o]rhkanc', and his son the brave and renowned patron of patrons Grigor."
1243/44 prince of princes K'urd (VT p. 86).
1244/45 atabek and amirspasalar Xut'eubul (VT p. 87).
1244/45 K'urd, prince of princes (VT p. 87).
1248/49 Hasan Jalal's wife Mamk'an "daughter of the king of Baghk'" (VT pp. 92-93).
1251/52 "I, Mamk'an, queen, wife of [Hasan] Jalal Dawl[a]" (VT p. 96).
1251/52 koghmnakal Tarsayich, prince of princes..."brother of king Smbat" (VT p. 94).
1252/53 "king Jalal Dawl[a]" (VT p. 96).
1260/61 Smbat "prince of princes" (CIA v. III p. 218 foldout).
1282/83 "the great asparapet Varham" (CIA v. III p. 50; VT pp. 123-24).
During the 1280's, many inscriptions begin using the terms paron and paronut'iwn:
1289/90 "prince of princes, paron Bught'ay" (CIA v. I p. 22).
1295/96 "prince of princes Burt'el" (VT p. 136).
1296/97 "in the paronut'iwn of the prince of princes Grigor" (CIA v. IV p. 355; also VT p. 139).
1296/97 Mina khatun, the royal queen, daughter of the great lieutenant of Aghbania/Aghuania, Jalal (CIA v. III p. 237; VT p. 138).
1307 Colophon, 14CC p. 42, prince of princes Burt'el.
1307 Wife of Hasan the asparapet of Armenia (CIA v. III p. 76; VT p. 154).
1322 Col. 14CC p. 166: "in the generalship and princedom of this district [Glajor] of Burt'el and Amir Hasan."
1324 Col. 14CC p. 182, "the king of Georgia and Greater Armenia, Gawrg, the prince of princes of the House of Siwnik', spayapet Burt'el."
1337/38 Col. 14CC p. 292, "for the paron of parons, Peshgen, heir of the royal line of Greater Armenia and his son Elikum, 'born in the purple'."
1338/39 Kurd Anberdec'i, prince of princes (VT p. 166).
1338/39 Col. 14CC p. 369, "prince of princes Beshken and Iwane," sons of deceased paron Burt'el.
1341/42 Col. 14CC p. 328: "in the consulship and sparapetut'iwn of Armenia of Biwrt'el [Orbelean].
1400/01 Col. 14CC p. 632, "the princedom of paron Smbat and Burdel."
28 HAP p. 552.
29 HAP p. 553; VT pp. 50, 52, 68.
30 The following are some random examples of the confusion resulting from the use of titles as proper names.
1206/07 amirspasalar Zak'are calls himself Zak'are Shahnshah (VT p. 47).
1208/09 Shahnshah Zak'aria (CIA v. I p. 6; VT p. 49; CIA v. I p. 5; VT p. 49).
1209/10 "in the world reign of the shahnshahs Zak'are and Iwane" (VT p. 50).
1210/11 Shahnshah Zak'aria (CIA v. I p. 55).
1211/12 Marcpan, son of Sargis Hamazaspeanc' (VT p. 52).
1212/13 Shahnshah Zak'aria (VT p. 54).
1215/16 Shahnshah Zak'aria, son of Shahnshah Sargis (CIA v. I p. 2).
1220/21 amirspasalar Shahnshah Sargis (meaning Zak'are's son, Shahnshah) (CIA v. I p. 17).
1221/22 I, Marcpan, son of Sargis...(VT p. 64).
1232/33 Col. Yov. Yish., pp. 886-86, "the Caesars of Armenia and Georgia, and all Abkhazia/Abxazia."
1234/35 "I, T'aguhi, wife of Sharap'shah" (VT p. 78).
1234/35 "I, T'aguhi, daughter of Sharap'shah" (VT pp. 78, 112).
1243 Hasan Jalal's son is named At'abak (VT p. 86).
1245/46 "Aslanbeg, son of Marcpan" (VT pp. 88089).
1252/53 "I, Smbat, son of Hejub" (VT p. 96).
1276/77 At'abak, lord of Xach'en (VT p. 118).
1281/82 T'aguhi, daughter of the presbyter ter (lord) Sahak (VT p. 122).
1293/94 Hejub's brother's son (VT p. 136).
1320 Hechup (CIA v. IV p. 123; VT p. 159).
31 For example:
1206/07 amirspasalar Zak'are calls himself the zawrapet of Armenia and Georgia (VT p. 47).
1211/12 Zak'aria "amirspasalar of Armenia and Georgia" (VT p. 53).
1214/15 Awag, the "coronant of Georgia" (VT p. 56).
1219/20 Iwane, atabek of Armenia and Georgia (VT p. 62).
1223/24 "the amirspasalarate of Armenia and Georgia of Shahnshah" (VT p. 62).
A classic example of the confusion of Armenian and Georgian titles is the curious and regrettably unique passage in SO p. 100 which mentions the dignitaries summoned by atabek Iwane (ca. 1224) to participate in a judicial decision: "...[Iwane] ordered his grandees to sit and examine the matter: Bubak and the marcuan [proper name or title?], Iwane the dpel and the memnashsghel [title, or proper name Memna Jaqeli?] the great chghawnditel (bishop) who had come from the kingdom, the ciram cghawr (abbot) of Varji and the abbot of Pghnjahank', the great mamt'avar (patriarch) of Garshte, the Gageck'ik', and the Macnaberdec'ik' and in addition, many other didebuls: the qadi of Dwin and the one called shex of Surmari. [Among the examiners were also] the great bishop of Ani, the bishop of Bjni, and the bishop of Haxbat." See L. Melik'set'-Bek, "A Testimony about the Structure and Procedure of the Supreme Court in Zak'arid Armenia," Teghekagir #3-4(1945) pp. 75-79 (in Arm).
1232/33 Col. Yov. Yish., pp. 886-87: "Now this Bible...was requested by...the honorable prince of princes [diss. p. 265] Patron Xawrhas, son of Amir Sargis, who was the brother of the mother of the Caesars of Armenia, Georgia, and all Abkhazia/Abxazia...the great Zak're' and Iwane...before whom he was nourished and grew up...After great Zak're's untimely passing to Christ—which plunged the land of Armenia into darkness—his well-favored descendant...the mandatort'axuc'es of the great kingdom, Shahnshah, succeeded to the throne of his father's kingdom...May Jesus Christ keep him in peace...and also keep his son Zak'are 'born into the crown' (t'agacin)...The same loyalty was shown by the very honorable prince of princes Xawrhas educating and nourishing him with all piety and devoutness as he had been educated by his forbears—from whom as recompense for his loyal service, he received a great honor [or the office] of msaxurt'axuc'es in Georgian which translates into our [Armenian] language as 'chief and commander of all the rulers and chiefs of the royal house of his lord' (glux ishxec'ogh ew hramanatar amenayn ishxec'oghac' ew glxaworac' tan t'agaworut'ean tearhn iwroy)."
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