extending southwards beyond the Anti-Taurus, and so beyond the southwestern bastion of the Armenian Plateau, had been the Hittite frontier of the Urartian Monarchy and now was the most Hellenized of the Armenian provinces. Both Artaxias and Zariadris became Seleucid governors in their respective realms, as Antiochus III evidently attempted to apply a divide et impera policy to a vassal kingdom that had proved insubordinate. This weakening division of armenia must account for the Seleucid non-recognition of the royal dignity of either rival. all this was in the end a miscalculation. No sooner had Antiochus sustained, at Magnesia in 190 B.C., his great defeat at the hands of the Romans than both Artaxias and Zariadris seceded from the Seleucid Monarchy. In the Peace of Apamea of 188, which sealed the roman victory, the status by both under the guarantee of the roman Senate. This was the first juridical contact of Armenia and rome. the two kingdoms, Greater Armenia and Sophene, pursued thereafter a lively expansionist policy, undeterred by the momentary return of Seleucid suzerainty under Antiochus IV. They proceeded to absorb more of the neighbouring territories till the boundaries of historical Armenia were reached, by the two together. Consequent on this near-unification was the growing linguistic homogeneity of the country (79).

8. The Second Armenian Monarchy of the Artaxiads restored, perhaps quite consciously, the glories of Uraryu and, briefly, even surpassed them, while the decadent Seleucids were struggling with Rome over the inheritence of Alexander and, over the inheritance of Cyrus and Darius, with the newly-risen Parthian Arsacids. Cosmocratic claims and the title of King of Kings were revived by the Artaxiad Tigranes II the Great (95-56 B.C.), when the Caucasian oikoumene and even its fringes passed under his control (80) and when, further to objectify these claims, he achieved notable victories over both the Arsacid heirs of the pax achaemenia and the Seleucid heirs of the pax macedonica. Accordingly, Greater Armenia, was enlarged again, as some disputed territory was wrested from the Parthians and the short-lived Kingdom of Sophene was annexed (81),

Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p. 74. The Social Background of Christian Caucasia

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