This material, which is presented solely for non-commercial educational/research purposes, appeared in the journal The Muslim World in three installments: LVIII, No.2 (1968), 105-119; LVIII, No. 3 (1968), 194-217; and LVIII, No. 4 (1968), 317-333.
1-See J. B. Chabot. La Litterature Syriaque (Paris, 1935), pp. 9-10. Chabot also refers to H. Omont, Inventaire de la Collection renaudot a la Bibliotheque Nationale. See also, by the same author, Les Langues et la Litterature Arameenne (Paris, 1910), translated into Arabic by Anton Shukri Lawrence (Jerusalem, 1930), p. 5.
2-William Wright, Syriac Literature (London, 1894), p. 141.
4-The Repentance of Ninevah, by Ephraim Syrus. Trans. By Rev. Henry Burgess (London, 1853), Introduction, pp. 20-21. According to Burgess, Ephraim says that "God gives forgivness, a word concerning which there can be no difference." Yet Assemani renders the sentence "Indulgenatiam adjecit, id est, Clavium potestatem" ("He adds indulgence, that is the ‘power of the the keys.'")
5-Loc. cit., p.21.
6-Viscount Philip de Tarrazi, Asdag ma kan an Tarikh lubnan (The Most True Account of the History of Lebanon), in Arabic (Beirut, 1948), I, 432.
7-Wright, Syriac Literature, p. 74, mentions one anaphora by Philoxenus of Mabug, but refers us to Renaudot, II, 310, and to Assemani, B.O., II, 24. He also cites Renaudot as the source of this information in his Catalogue of Syriac Manuscript in the British Museum.
8-Rubens Duval, La Litterature Syriaque (Paris, 1899), p. 13.
9-Ernest Renan, Histoire des langues semitiques, p. 259.
10-Bar Daysan, Laws of the Countries, ed. Williams Cureton (London, 1855), p.15.
11-Bar Hebraeus, Chronicon Syriacum, ed. Paul Bedjan (Paris, 1890), p. 168.
15-Ignatius Aphram Barsoum, al-LuLu al-Manthur (Histoire des Sciences et de la Litterature Syriaque) Arabic, 2nd edition (Aleppo, 1956), p. 237.
17-Martin Sprengling, "Antonius Rhetor on Versification," American Journal of Semitic languages and Literature, XXXII, 3 (April, 1916), p. 139.
18-See Anton Baumstark, Geschichte der Syrischen Literature (Bonn, 1922), p.11.
19- See the preface of William Cureton to his Spicilegium Syriacum (London, 1855).
20-For an English translation of the Pshitto see George M. Lamsa Holy Bible from the Peshitta (Philadelphia, 1957). This translation appeared for the first time in 1933.
21-William Wright, Syriac Literature (London, 1894), p. 5.
22-F. Crawford Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity (London, 1904), p. 70.
23-Anton baumstark, Geschichte der Syrischen Literature, p.18.
24-Burkitt, pp. 39-78.
25-E. Nestle, "Syriac Versions," The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Samuel Macauley Jackson, XI (1958), 126.
27-Paul E. Kahle, The Cairo Geniza, (Oxford, 1959), p. 265.
28-Nestle, p. 127.
29-Kahle, pp. 265-283.
30-F. Crawford Burkitt, Evangelion da Mephareshe (Cambridge, 1904), II, 201.
31-Kahle, p. 265.
32-Kahle, pp. 265-267.
33-John Pinkerton, "The Origin and Early History of the Syriac Pentateuch," in J.T.S., XV (1914), 14-41.
34-Kahle, p. 266.
35-Burkitt, Eastern Christianity, pp. 39-78 passim.
36-Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, Book I, xiii.
37-Burkitt, Eastern Christianity, pp. 71-72.
38-Joseph Marquart, Osteuropaische und ostasiatische Streifzuge (Leipzig, 1903), p.288, quoted by Kahle, p. 270.
39-According to Josephus (Antiquities, XX, ii, 1, 4), Izates II, King of Adiabene, son Monobazas I, and his sister Helena, had been won over to the Jewish religion. A Jewish merchant named Ananias (Hannania) had been admitted to the Royal court and harem, where he was able to interest the royal ladies in the Jewish religion.
40-Kahle, p. 274, quoting Marquart, p. 298. 41-Kahle, p. 274, quoting Adoloph Harnack, Die Mission und Ausbreitung des Christentum (4th ed., 1924), p. 284.
42-Kahle, p. 275.
43-For the Syriac text and English translation of the Doctrine of Addai, see William Cureton, Ancient Syriac Documents (London, 184), pp. 24-35.
44-Kahle, pp. 282-283.
45-Addai Scher, Tarikh Kaldo wa Athur, II, 6.
46-See Duval, La Litterature Syriaque (Paris, 1899), p. 32.
47-Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis, II, 279.
48-Ibid., II, 468.
49-The Anonymous Chronicle of Edessa, ed. Rahmani, p. 66, cited by Rev. P. Behnam, "Ta qibat Tarikhiyya," Lisan al-Mashriq (May-July, 1951), p. 271.
50-For full statement of Solomon of Basra see (Cureton, Ancient Syriac Documents)
51-Burkitt, Eastern Christianity, p. 32.
52-Kahle, p. 283.
53-Michael the Great, Chronicle , pp. 283-285, quoted by Rev. P. Behnam, "Ta qibat Tarikhiyya," p. 271.
54-Burkitt, Eastern Christianity, p. 32.
55-Cureton Ancient Syriac Documents, p. 162.
56-F. C. Burkitt, "The Diatessaron and Early Syriac Versions," Encyclopedia Britannica (1950), 517.
57-According to the Encyclopedia Britannica (1950), XXI, 834, his heresy "was that of the Encratites. Their main doctrines were the evil nature of matter, an absolute forbidding of marriage, abstinence from wine and perhaps from meat."
58-Barsoum, al-LuLu al-Manthur (Syria, 1956), p. 630.
59-Wright, Syriac Literature, p. 8.
60-The full text of St. Aphraim's commentary on the Diatessaron was discovered and published recently with a Latin translation and French by Leloir. See St. Ephrem, Commentaire De L' Evangile Concordance Syriaqe, texte edite et transmit par Don Louis Leloir (Dublin, 1963).
61-Ignatius Jacob III, "Al-Kitab al-Maqaddas fi al-Kanisa al-Suryaniya," al-Majalla al-Patriarchiyya, I (Damascus: September, 1962), 67.
62-Addai Scher, Tarikh Kaldo wa Athur, II, 19.
63-William Cureton, Remains of a Very Ancient Recension of the Four Gospels in Syriac (London, 1858).
64-Robert C. Bensley, J. Rendel Harris and F. Crawford Burkitt, The Four Gospels in Syriac, transscribed from the Sinatics Palimpsest, intro. By Agnes Smith Lewis (Cambridge, 1894).
65-Edgar Goodspeed, "The Canons of the New Testament," The Interpeter's Bible (1952) I, 68.
66-Wright, Syriac Literature, p. 13.
67-Barsoum, Al-LuLu al-Manthur, p. 57.
68-Wright, p. 16.
69-Wright, p. 17.
70-William Wright, "Syriac Literature," Encyclopedia Britannica (1887), vol. XXIV.
71-Bar Daysan was born in 154 A.D., in a place near Edessa on the River Daysan (for which he was named). He was a Babylonian by origin, or according to another theory, from Adiabene. His parents. Nuhana and Nahshayrem, escaped from their country in the fifteenth year of the reign of the Persian King Shahruq, the son of Narsay, and settled in Edessa. There Bar Daysan was raised in the palace of King Mano VIII (139-179); hence, he must have been of noble origin. He studied both Syriac and Greek and was converted to Christianity by Oshtasab, the bishop of Edessa. He was ordained a deacon and probably a priest as well. Perhaps he was the person who convinced the Edessan King Abgar IX (179-214) to become a Christian, for they had been close friends from their younger days. Bar Daysan died in 222. For information about his life, see Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, IV, xxx; Michael the Great, Chronicle, ed. J. B. Chabot (Paris, 1899-1918), p. 110; Duval, La Litterature Syriaque, pp. 241-248; Addai Scher, II, 20-21; and Barsoum, al-Lulu al-Manthur (2nd editions), p. 238.
72-William Cureton, Spicilegium Syriacum (London, 1855), preface.
73-Burkitt, Eastern Christianity, pp. 158-159.
74-Ibid, pp. 158-159.
75-Antonius is believed to be the emperor Marcus Antonius Aurelius. Yet there is no indication in the original Syriac text that the treatise was addressed to this emperor. See Cureton, op. cit., preface.
76-Eusebius, Ecclesiastical, IV, xxx.
77-Severus Jacob, Tarikh al-Kanisa al-Suryaniyya al-Antakiyya (History of the Syrian Church of Antoich), Arabic (Beirut, 1953), I, 129.
78-Martin Sprengling, "Antonius Rhetor on Versification," The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature, XXXII, 3 (April, 1916), appendix I.
79-P. D. Gabrielem Crdahi (Liber Thesauri de Arte poetica Syrorum, p. 12) gives the following short poem by St. Ephraim against Daysan:
"He whom you see named Bar Daysan
is more appropriately named than the name of Daysan
a river near Edessa which Bar Daysan apparently was named after.
For this one the River Daysan
was not flooded with thorns and tares, of which Bar Daysan was full."
80-Michel le Syrian, ed. J. B. Chabot, p. 110.
81-Bar Hebraeus, Tarikh Mukhtsar al-Duwal (Compendious History of Dynasties), Arabic, ed, A. Salhani (Beirut, 1890), p. 125.
82-Duval, p. 234.
83-Ibid., p. 247.
84-Ahmad Amin, Fajr al-Islam, Arabic (Cairo, 1928), I, 156.
85-Duval, La Litterature Syriaque, pp. 75-77; Wright, Syriac Literature, pp.
33-39; Addai Scher, Tarikh Kaldo wa Athur, II, 46-47.
86-Baumstark, Geschichte der Syrischen Literature, p. 42.
87-Wright, p. 35; Baumstark, p. 44.
88-See Gregory Nyssa, " In praise of St. Ephraim," al-Majalla al-Patriarchiyya, I, II, III (Hims, Syria, 1939).
89-Wright, p. 33; Addai Scher, II, 47.
90-Burkitt, p. 178.
91-Sprengling, p. 149.
92-Burkitt, Eastern Christianity, p. 96.
93-Ibid., pp. 98-99.
94-Duval, p. 21. 71
95-Ephraim Syrus, The Repentance of Nineveh, trans. Rev. Henry Burgess (London, 1853), II, preface, p. 13.
96-T. J. De Boer, The History of Philosophy In Islam, trans, Edward R. Jones (London, 1961), p. 11.
97-Ernest Renan, De Philosophia Peripatetica apud Syros (Paris, 1852), p. I. 98.
98- Jurji Zaydan, Tarikh al-Tamaddun al-Islami (Cairo, 1904), III, 132.
100-Renan, p. 4.
101-Renan, Chapter I, passim.
102-Philip K. Hitti, History of Syria (New York, 1951), pp. 251-261.
103-Cureton, Spicilegium Syriacum, pp. 72-74.
104-Ibid., pp. 72-4.
105-Max Meyerhof, Von Alexandrien nach Baghdad, trans. into Arabic by Dr. Adb al-Rahman Badawi, in Al-Turath al-Yunani fi al-Hadara al-Islamiyya (Cairo, 1940), p. 38.
106-Meyerhof, p. 52.
107-Zaydan, III, 128.
108-William Wright , Cataloque, III, 731-33.
109-Baumstark, pp. 101-102.
110-Severus Jacob, Tarikh al-Kanisa al-Suryaniyya al-Antakiyya (Beirut, 1957), II, 34-5.
111-Renan, p. 12.
112-Ibid., pp. 12-13.
113-Wright, Syriac Literature, p. 48.
114-J. S. Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis, III, I, 85, note cited by Renan, p. 14.
115-Wright, Syriac Literature, p. 50. 116-Baumstark, p. 254.
117-Duval, p. 15.
118-Renan, p. 15.
119-Ibid., p. 25.
120-Duval, pp. 255-256, quoting Victor Ryssel, Uber den textkritischen wert der Syrischen Ubersetzungen der Klassiker (Leipzing, 1880).
121-Ibn Abi Usaybia, Uyum al-Anba (Beirut, 1957), II, 173.
122-G. P. Behnam, al-Falsafa al-Masha Iyya fi Tarikhina al-Fikri (Mosul, 1958), pp. 12-14.
123-Wright, Syriac Literature, p. 138.
124-Duval, pp. 278-279.
125-Wright, Cataloque, III, 1189.
126-For the Acts of Martyrs, see William Cureton, Ancient Syriac Documents (London, 1864). See also John of Ephesus, Lives of the Eastern Saints, ed. E. W. Brooks in the Patrologia Orientalis, ed. R. Graffin and F. Nau (Paris, 1923-26), XVII, XVIII and XIX.
127-Wright, Cataloque, III, pp. 1070-1153.
128-The Third Part of the Ecclesiastical History of John of Ephesus was edited and published at Oxford in 1853 by William Cureton. See also J. P. N. Land, Joannes, Bischof von Ephesos, der erste Syrische Kirchenhistoriker (Leiden, 1856). In 1860 R. Payne Smith translated Cureton's Syriac edition of the history of John of Ephesus into English and published it at Oxford. In 1862 the same was translated into German by J. M. Schonfelder and published at Munich. Fragments of the second part of the Ecclesiastical History were published by Land in part ii of his Anecdota Syriaca at Leiden, 1868. Finally, extracts from the Ecclesiastical History were edited by Jessie Payne Margoliouth and published at Leiden, 1909.
129-Duval, p. 187-223.
130-Ibid., pp. 351-52.
131-Renan, p. 34.
132-Bar Hebraeus, Tarikh Mukhtsar al-Duwal, p. 51.
133-De Boer, The History of Philosophy in Islam, trans. Edward R. Jones (London: Luzac and Co, 1903; republished New York; Dover Publ. Inc., 1967), p. 15.
134-Renan, p. 32.
135-Wright, Catalogue, II, 984.
136-Cf. Renan, p. 33, and Wright, Catalogue, III, 1163.
137-Renan, p. 33.
138-Ibid., pp. 34.
139-Ibid., p. 33.
140-Duval, p. 259; Wright, Syriac Literature, pp. 210-11.
141-Ignatius Aphram Barsoum, al-LuLu al-Manthur, p. 482.
142-Renan, pp. 65-67; Wright, Syriac Literature, pp. 269-70; Duval, pp. 261-62; Baumstark, pp. 316-317.
143-For the complete list of the works of Bar Hebraeus, see E. A. Wallis Budge, The Chronography of Bar Hebraeus (Oxford, 1932).
144-Wright, Catalogue, II, 1165.
145-Renan, p. 28; Wright, Syriac Literature, p. 91.
146-Bar Hebraeus, Dynasties, p. 41. Cf. Renan, pp. 49-50.
147-Wright, Syriac Literature, p. 164.
148-Wright, Syriac Literature, pp. 276-79.
149-The ode Divine Wisdom was translated into Arabic and published with elaborate commentary by Archbishop Paulos Behnam in Lisan al-Mashriq (Mosul, 1950). It was republished with the Syriac text in Syria in 1965 in Archbishop Behnam's Ibn al-Ibri al-Shair (Bar Hebraeus the poet).
150-Ignatius Jacob III, "al-Kindi wa al-Suryaniyya," al-Majalla al-Patriarchiyya (January, 1963), pp. 255-267. See also Meyerhof, p. 60.
151-Meyerhof, pp. 62-63.
152-For a detailed analysis of the missionary activity of the Syrian Church in Arabia, see Louis Cheikho, al-Nasraniyya wa Adabuha bayn Arab al-jahiliyya (Beirut, 1912), part I.
153-Bar Hebraeus, Chronicon Syriacum, I, 275.
154-Barsoum, al-LuLu al-Manthur, p. 77.
156-Ibn Abi Usaybia Uyun al-Anba (Beirut, 1956), II, 37-41.
157-Al-Qifti, Tarikh al-Hukama, ed. J. Lippert (Leipzing, 1903).
158-Meyerhof, p. 60, is incorrect in calling Yahya an Arab.
159-For a detailed description of the works and life of Yahya b. Adi, see Augustine Perier, Yahya ibn Adi (Paris, 1920).
160-See Ibn Abi Usaybia, Uyan al-Anba for a detailed description of the lives and works of the different translators.
161-The most comprehensive work on the Syrian Christian literature written in Arabic is Georg Graf, Geschichte der Christlichen Arabischen Literatur (Vatican City, 1944 and 1960).
162-Khalil Georr, Les Categories d'Aristotle dans leurs Versions Syro-arabes (Beirut, 1948), pp. 182-200.
163-Meyerhof, pp. 72-78.
165-For a through analysis of the Sciences of the Ancients (Ulum al-Awa'il), see Ignaz Goldziher, "Stellung der alten islamischen Orthodoxie zu den antiken Wissenschaften" in Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Klasse, VIII (Berlin, 1916), translated into Arabic by Abd al-Rahman Badawi in al-Turath al-Yunani fi al-Haddara al-Islamiya, (Cairo, 1947), pp. 123-172.
166-Ibrahim Madkur, L'Organon d'Aristotle dans le monde Arabe (Paris, 1934), p. 47.
167-Graf, pp. 281-284.
169-Barsoum, p. 546.
170-Ibid., pp. 565-66.
171-For the biography and works of Maphrian Shamoun, see al-Majalla al-Patriarchiyya, VI (1938), 23-30.
172-Barsoum, p. 581.
173-Murad Chiqqi, Naum Faiq (Jerusalem, 1936), pp. 300-4.
174-Barsoum, p. 528.
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