The Arab Emirates
in Bagratid Armenia*

by Aram Ter-Ghewondyan

Erevan, 1965, English Translation by N. G. Garsoian, Lisbon, 1976

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This study appears as a volume in the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Armenian Library (Lisbon, 1976).

*This material is presented solely for non-commercial educational/research purposes.

Additional maps of Armenia and neighboring lands in different centuries are available on the Maps Page.

See also Articles by Aram Ter-Ghewondyan, from the journal Patma-banasirakan handes [Historico-Philological Journal] (Erevan, Armenia).

Table of Contents

Editor's Note, viii
Abbreviations, x
Author's Preface, xi


1. The Sources, 1
2. The Historiography of the Subject, 14
I. The Creation of the First Emirates in Greater Armenia
1. The Nature of Arab Rule in Armenia, 19
2. The Arab-Byzantine Frontier Zone (Thughur), 22
3 The Arab Tribes of Upper Mesopotamia--the Shaybani, 25
4. The Arab Migrations to Armenia--the Sulaym Tribe (al-Sulami), 29
5. The Djahhafids, 33
6. The Results of Bugha's Expedition, 41
7. The Assimilation of the Arab Emirates into the Ranks of the Armenian Naxarars, 45

II. The Emirates in the Bagratid Kingdom

1. The Establishment of the Kaysites at Manazkert in the Period of Ashot I , 51
2. The Relations of Ashot I and the Emirates of Greater Armenia, 53
3. The Struggle of Smbat I over Dwin, 60
4. The Conflict between Smbat I and Ahmad al-Shaybani, 63
5. The Crushing of the Kaysite Rebellion, 65
III. The Emirates in the Period of Fragmentation of Armenia, 69
1. The Creation of the Emirates of Dwin and Goght'n in the Sadjid Principality, 71
2. Dwin between A.D. 929 and 941, 77
3. The Kaysites, 79
4. The Hamdanids and the South-Western Provinces of Armenia, 83
5. The City of Karin, 88

IV The Struggle of the Bagratids of Ani against the Emirates

1. The First Shaddadid at Dwin, 93
2. The Sallarids and Armenia, 98
3. The Southern Valley of the Araxes in the Reign of Gagik I, 101
4. The Western Provinces of Armenia, 104
V The Byzantine Offensive and the Armenian Emirates
1. The Penetration of the Kurds into Southern Armenia, 110
2. The Marwanids, 111
3. The Conquest of Western and Southern Armenia by Byzantium, 114
4. The Shaddadids of Dwin, 119
VI The Internal Life of the Armenian Emirates
1. Territory, 125
2. Population, 129
3. The Centers of the Tondrakian Movement, 135
4. Crafts and Commerce, 137
5. The Emirates as Feudal Holdings, 142
Conclusion, 149

Notes, 151


I. A Brief Chronology of the City of Dwin, 179
II. The Arab Tribes (Northern Group), 181

III. The Emirates in Greater Armenia

A. Houses of Arab Origin
I. The Shaybani, 182
II. The Zurarids, 182
III. The Sulami ostikans of Arminiya, 183
IV. The Djahhafids, 183
V. The Kaysites, 184
VI. The Hamdanids, 184

B. Houses of Kurdish Origin

I. The Marwanids, 185
II. The Shaddadids, 185

IV. The Rulers of Azerbaidjan, 186

Bibliography, 187


Index of Proper Names, 201

Index of Technical Terms, 239

Errata, 243

Map, 245

The following chronological tables may be useful as accompaniments to Ter-Ghewondyan's work. The tables and most other links on this page open in separate windows. Additional tables are available on another page of this site: Chronological Tables.

Rulers of Armenia and of Eastern and Western Empires
Kat'oghikoi and Corresponding Secular Rulers of the Armenians
Rulers of Armenia and Iberia/Georgia

HTML formatting by Robert Bedrosian, 2010.

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