Maps of Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and Neighboring Lands

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The following selected public domain maps are from The Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography by Samuel Butler, Ernest Rhys, editor (Suffolk, 1907, repr. 1908), made available by Project Gutenberg. The complete Atlas may be downloaded from that site.


Ancient World Maps

World According to Herodotus (484-425 B.C.)
World According to Ptolemy (2nd Century A.D.)
World as Known to the Ancients


Africa

Africa Antiqua
Northern Africa
Egypt


Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and Neighboring Lands

Syria, Mesopotamia, Assyria
Asia Minor
Oriens (Caspian area and eastward)
Armenia, Colchis, Iberia, Albania (Aghuania, Atropatene/Atrpatakan)


Greece, Macedonia, and Rome

Greece
Peloponnesus
Aegean Islands
Macedonia
Northern Italy
Central Italy
Southern Italy


The Levant

Biblical Israel and Judah
Palestine at the Time of Jesus



The following selected public domain maps are from the Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd (New York, 1911), made available by The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection of the University of Texas at Austin. The complete Atlas may be downloaded from that site. Available at the same site is a later, extended, composite version of Shepherd's Atlas drawn from editions published in 1923 and 1926. All maps below are from the 1911 edition unless otherwise indicated.


Greece, Assyria, the Levant, Iran

Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa (Physical Map)
Mycenaean Greece and the Orient about 1450 B.C., 1926 edition.
The Assyrian Empire and the Eastern Mediterranean, 850-625 B.C., 1929 edition.
The Assyrian Empire and the Eastern Mediterranean, 750-625 B.C., 1926 edition.
Reference Map of Ancient Israel and Palestine, 1926 edition.
The Oriental Empires about 600 B.C., 1923 edition.
The Persian Empire about 500 B.C., 1923 edition.


Greek and Phoenician Settlements in the Mediterranean Basin about 500 B.C., 1929 edition.
Alexander's Empire, 336-323 B.C. (Caspian and West), 1929 edition.
Alexander's Empire, 336-323 B.C. (Caspian and East), 1929 edition.
Seleucid Kingdoms about 301 B.C., 1929 edition.
Seleucid Kingdoms about 200 B.C., 1929 edition.


Roman Republic and Empire

Reference Map of Asia Minor under the Greeks and Romans, 1929 edition.
Reference Map of Asia Minor under the Greeks and Romans, 1923 edition.
The Growth of Roman Power in Asia Minor
The Territorial Expansion of Rome


East Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)

The Roman Empire about 395
The Roman and Hunnic Empires about 450
The Germanic Kingdoms and the East Roman Empire in 486
Europe and the East Roman Empire, 533-600


Asia Minor, 8-15th Centuries

The Caliphate in 750
The Byzantine Empire and the Caliphate about 814
Europe and the Byzantine Empire about 1000
Europe and the Mediterranean Lands about 1097
Asia Minor and the Crusader States in Syria, about 1140
Europe and the Mediterranean Lands about 1190, 1926 edition.
The Mediterranean Lands after 1204
The Byzantine Empire, 1265-1355
The Mongol Dominions, 1300-1405
The Ottoman Empire, 1451-1481


Economic Map of the Ancient World, 1929 edition
Medieval Commerce, Europe
Medieval Commerce, Asia



The following selected maps are from Muir's Atlas of Ancient and Classical History and Muir's Historical Atlas--Mediaeval and Modern by Ramsey Muir (both London, 1911, reprinted numerous times).


Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, the Levant, Iran

World as Known to the Ancients, with inserts
Nile and Euphrates Valleys (1200 B.C.)
Assyrian Empire (7th Century B.C.)
Ancient Canaan, Israel, Palestine, and Syria
Phoenician and Greek Colonies, Persian Empire (c. 500 B.C.)
Empires of Alexander the Great and His Successors (4th Century B.C.)


Roman Republic and Empire

Roman Republic and Early Empire, Western Lands
Roman Republic and Early Empire, Eastern Lands
Roman Empire in the Time of Augustus, Italia and Western Provinces
Roman Empire in the Time of Augustus, Italia and Eastern Provinces


Europe and Parts of Asia, 3rd-6th Centuries

Roman, Parthian, Kushan, Han Dominions (Third Century), Western Lands
Roman, Parthian, Kushan, Han Dominions (Third Century), Eastern Lands
Europe on the Eve of the Barbarian Irruptions, Late 4th Century
Europe c. 476 A.D.
Europe c. 526 A.D.
Europe c. 600 A.D.
Europe c. 650 A.D.


Europe, the Middle East, and Parts of Asia, 7th-13th Centuries

The Conquests of Islam
Europe and Western Asia in the Time of Charlemagne, Western Lands
Europe and Western Asia in the Time of Charlemagne, Eastern Lands
Europe c. 900 A.D.
Europe at the Time of the First Crusade, c. 1100 A.D.
Second, Third, and Fourth Crusades. The Latin States in Syria


Parts of Europe and Asia, 13th-14th Centuries

Eastern Europe and Asia Minor c. 1250
Europe and Asia Minor c. 1360
Asia under the Mongols, Commercial Routes, Western Lands
Asia under the Mongols, Commercial Routes, Eastern Lands
Asia under the Mongols, Commercial Routes, India
Europe, Medieval Commerce
Growth of the Ottoman Empire



The following selected public domain maps are from Atlas Antiquus by Heinrich Kiepert (Berlin, 1869, reprinted numerous times), made available by E. Gottwein. Individual plates from the complete Atlas may be downloaded from that site. Three chapters from Kiepert's companion work, A Manual of Ancient Geography, are available on another page of our website.


Antiquity

World as Known to the Ancients and Ptolemy's World
Empires of Iran and Macedonia


Roman Africa

Northwestern Africa:
  Mauretania Tingitana
  Mauretania Caesariensis
  Numidia

North Central Africa:
  Tripolitana
  Libya

Northeastern Africa:
  Northern Egypt
  Central Egypt--Heptanomis
  Central Egypt--Thebais
  Southern Egypt and Ethiopia


Roman Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and Neighboring Lands

Roman Asia Minor and Environs:

  Eastern Thrace
  Mysia
  Ionia
  Aeolia
  Lydia


  Caria
  Doria
  Lycia
  Pamphylia
  Pisidia

  Phrygia
  Lycaonia
  Galatia
  Bithynia
  Paphlagonia
  Pontus

  Greater Cappadocia
  Cappadocia
  Commagene
  Armenia and Neighbors
  Armenia and Media Atropatene

  Mesopotamia
  Cilicia
  Syria
  Phoenicia
  Palestine



The following public domain maps are from The Historical Geography of Asia Minor by William Mitchell Ramsay (London, 1890, reprinted numerous times). The entire text of Ramsay's Historical Geography may be downloaded in pdf format here.


Asia Minor

Index Map of Ancient Asia Minor showing Roads at Different Periods
Asia, Lydia, and Caria
Hellespontus and Bithynia
Galatia, with parts of Cappadocia and Lykaonia
Cappadocia and Armenia Minor
Lykaonia, Cilicia, and Isauria



The following selected public domain maps are from Ginn and Company's Classical Atlas, Keith Johnston, cartographer (Boston, 1894, reprinted numerous times). The entire Classical Atlas may be downloaded in pdf format here.


Ancient World Maps

World as Known to the Ancients
Geography of Homer
Known World before Alexander the Great: Homer, Hecataeus, Herodotus, Democritus
World according to Eratosthenes, Strabo, and Ptolemy


Hellenistic and Roman Times

Empire of Alexander the Great
Imperial Rome, A.D. 98-117
Asia Minor
Syria and Palestine
Armenia, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Assyria
Persia and India
Egypt, Arabia, and Ethiopia
Africa
Routes of the Barbarian Invasions



The following selected public domain maps are from the Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land by George Adam Smith (London, 1915). The complete Atlas may be downloaded from Internet Archive [File size: 241.6 MB].


Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Western Asia

The Semitic World.
Western Asia before 1400 B.C.
Egyptian Empire, 1450 B.C.
Babylonian Empire, 560 B.C.
Persian Empire at Its Greatest Extent, 525 B.C.
Empire of Alexander the Great, 325 B.C.
Western Asia in the 4th-2nd Centuries B.C.
The World and Its Races According to the Old Testament.

Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula.
Ancient Trade Routes to Palestine.
Phoenicia and Lebanon.
Galilee (West); Galilee (East).
Samaria and Judea.


Palestine:
Before the Coming of Israel, 1500-1250 B.C.
In the Period of Israel's Settlement and of the Judges before 1050 B.C.
In the Time of Saul, about 1020 B.C.
Under David and Solomon, about 1015-930 B.C.
In the Times of Elijah and Elisha, about 860-800 B.C.
From 720 B.C. to the Exile of Judah.
Under the Persians, 538-332 B.C.
In the Time of the Maccabees, 168-135 B.C.

In the Time of Alexander Jannaeus and Queen Alexandra, 103-67 B.C.
After Pompey's Rearrangement, 63-48 B.C.
Under Mark Antony c. 42-31 B.C.
Under Herod the Great, 31-4 B.C.
Under Herod's Will and in the Time of Christ, 4 B.C.-37 A.D.

In the Time of Agrippa I, 37-44 A.D.
Under Roman Procurators, 6-41 and 44-70 A.D.
In the Time of Agrippa II, 48-70 A.D.

St. Paul's Travels.
Asia Minor Orographical, Showing Positions of the Seven Churches.
Church and Empire in the East under Trajan, ca. 110 A.D.
Church and Empire in the East under Constantine, ca. 330 A.D.
Palestine in the 4th Century according to Eusebius and Jerome.
Syria and Palestine in the time of the Crusades and Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Europe and the Nearer East in the Time of the Crusades.
Expansion of Christianity.




The following Russian maps of Historical Armenia, made by S.T. Eremyan, appear in Atlas Armianskoi SSR (Erevan-Moscow, 1961) pp. 102-106. These and several additional maps were also issued as a separate pamphlet.


Historical Armenia (in Russian)

The Armenian Highlands (Physical Map)
Urartu and Neighboring Countries, 8-7th Centuries B.C.E.
Armenia in the Hellenistic Period, 3rd-1st Centuries B.C.E.


Armenia in the 1st-4th Centuries C.E.
Armenia in the 1st-4th Centuries, the Caspian Area
Armenia in the 5-7th Centuries


Armenia at the Beginning of the 11th Century
Armenia and Neighboring Countries at the Beginning of the 13th Century
Western Armenia and Cilicia at the Beginning of the 13th Century
Armenia on the Eve of the Mongol Conquest



The following Armenian maps of Historical Armenia, made by S.T. Eremyan, appear in the first twelve volumes of Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran [Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia], (Erevan, 1971-1986). All maps are the work of Eremyan unless otherwise indicated. Volume and page information for these maps.


Historical Armenia and Neighboring Areas (in Armenian)

The Armenian Highlands and Neighboring Lands in the Bronze Age (E'.V. Xanzadyan, cartographer)
Urartu (M. A. Katvalyan, cartographer)
Armenia Minor/Lesser Armenia (P'ok'r Hayk') 3rd Century B.C. E.-4th Century C.E. (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)
The Kingdom of Tsop'k'-Commagene (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)
Artaxiad (Artashesian) Kingdom in the 1st Century B.C.E.


Arsacid (Arshakuni) Kingdom, 298-387
Arsacid (Arshakuni) Kingdom, 298-387 Western Border
Marzpan Armenia and Neighboring Countries (387-628) (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)
Marzpan Armenia and Neighboring Countries (387-628) Western Border. (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)
Greater Armenia according to the Ashxarats'oyts' [7th century Armenian geographical work]
Greater Armenia according to the Ashxarats'oyts' Western Border


Bagratid Kingdom (Late 9th-mid 10th Centuries)
The Kingdom of Kars and the Curopalate of Tayk' (10-11th Centuries)
Kyurikyan (Kiwrikean) Kingdom (972-1118)
Zak'arid Armenia at the Beginning of the 13th Century


Cilician Armenian State (1080-1375) (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)
Cilician Armenian State, the Western Lands (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)


Adiabene
Aghdznik'
Aghuank' (Aghuania, Atrpatakan) 387-706
Arts'ax
Ayrarat
Gugark'
P'aytakaran (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)
Upper Armenia Bardzr Hayk'
Siwnik' (Syunik')/Sisakan (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)
The Principality of Siwnik' (821-987) and the Kingdom of Siwnik' (987-1170) (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)
Tayk'
Tsop'k' (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)
Turuberan
Vaspurakan
The Kingdom of Vaspurakan (908-1021)


Alexander's Realm
The Parthian Kingdom (248 B.C.E.-277 C.E.)
Ptolemy's Tabula III Asiae
Ptolemy's Data Superimposed on an Accurate Map of Asia Minor
Ptolemy's Data Superimposed, the Western Lands
Sasanian State (3-7th Centuries) (B. H. Harut'yunyan, cartographer)



The following maps of Historical Armenia, made by C. Toumanoff, accompany his book Studies in Christian Caucasian History (Georgetown, 1963), and his article "Armenia and Georgia" [Chapter XIV in The Cambridge Medieval History vol. IV, The Byzantine Empire part I (Cambridge, 1966)]. These maps are not public domain and are presented here solely for non-commercial educational/research purposes.


Historical Armenia and Iberia/Georgia

Armenian Principalities and Iberian Lands in the 1st-6th Centuries
Armenian Provinces and Iberian Duchies in the 1st-6th Centuries
The Armeno-Georgian Marchlands
Caucasia in the 5th-8th Centuries
Caucasia in the 8th-11th Centuries
Caucasia in the 12th-15th Centuries

The following map of Historical Iberia/Georgia and its neighbors appears in W. E. D. Allen's A History of the Georgian People (N.Y., 1932, repr. 1971), p. 430. W. E. D. Allen, cartographer. We have divided the large map into four parts:

Northwest Iberia/Georgia
Northeast Iberia/Georgia
Southwest Iberia/Georgia
Southeast Iberia/Georgia

The following map of the 8-10th century Arab administrative district known as Arminiya appears in the Encyclopedia of Islam (date unknown), cartographer unknown. Arminiya included the Armenian highlands, the Caucasus, and parts of Upper Mesopotamia.

Arminiya



The following maps of the Middle East appear in The History of the Crusades, vol. 1. The First Hundred Years (Philadelphia, 1958), and vol. 2. The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 (Philadelphia, 1962), K. M. Setton, editor-in-chief. These maps are not public domain and are presented here solely for non-commercial educational/research purposes. All six volumes of The History of the Crusades are available for reading online courtesy of the University of Wisconsin.


The Near/Middle East during the 11-12th Centuries

The Near East
Persia and Adjacent Regions
Northern Syria
Palestine
Near East during the First Crusade, 1097-1100
Near East during the Reign of Baldwin I, 1100-1118
The Latin States during the Reign of Baldwin II, 1118-1131
The Latin States during the Time of Zengi, 1131-1146
The Near East during the Second Crusade, 1146-1148


The Near/Middle East during the Late 12th-Early 14th Centuries

The Latin States in 1189
The Near East during the Third Crusade, 1189-1192
The Crusade of 1197
The Near East
The Fifth Crusade, 1218-1221
The Crusade of Louis IX, 1249-1250
Palestine
Syria
The Latin States, 1192-1243
The Latin States, 1243-1291
Cyprus
Persia and Adjacent Areas
The Mongols in the Near East (to 1291)
The Mamluks in the Near East (to 1291)



The following maps of Historical Iran and its neighbors appear in The Cambridge Ancient History, volumes: III. The Assyrian Empire and IV. The Persian Empire (Cambridge, 1960), VI. Macedon 401-301 B.C. (1953), VII. Hellenistic Monarchies and the Rise of Rome (1954), IX. The Roman Republic 133-44 B.C. (1962), The Cambridge History of Iran, The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods volumes 3(1) and 3(2) (1983). These maps are not public domain and are presented here solely for non-commercial educational/research purposes.


Historical Iran and Neighboring Areas

Assyrian Empire
Urartu
Scythians and Northern Nomads
Achaemenid Satrapies at the Time of Darius
Route of Xenophon's Ten Thousand, ca. 401 B.C.

Hellenistic Kingdoms, ca. 275 B.C.
Hellenistic Asia
Parthian Empire
Iranians in Asia Minor
Armenia at the Time of the Parthian Empire
Asia Minor and Syria in 133 B.C.

Pompey's Settlement of the East
Parthian Empire in 51 B.C.
Colchis and Iberia (Georgia)
Western Regions of the Sasanian Empire
Provinces of the Early Sasanian Empire
Historical Map of Central Asia
Silk Road from China to the Roman Orient

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