Eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus
in Remote and Classical Antiquity

Hittite, Hurrian, Urartian Page



Urartian Inscriptions

Inscription of Menuas, King of Ararat, translated by A. H. Sayce.
Great Inscription of Argistis on the Rock of Van, translated by A. H. Sayce.
Monolith Inscription of Argistis, King of Van, translated by A. H. Sayce.


Hittite, Hurrian, Urartian History and Culture

The Hittites, The Story of a Forgotten Empire, by A. H. Sayce.
   Hittites Wikipedia article. Good summary and additional, recent links.

The Hittites and the Old Testament, by F. F. Bruce.

Hittite Treaties and Literature, by Daniel David Luckenbill. Numerous references to the peoples, cities, states, and rulers of the Armenian Highlands.

Selected Writings of Daniel David Luckenbill.

Material at Ancient World Online for Hittite/Hittites.

The Oriental Institute Open Access Publications and
ETANA Core Texts, prepared by Charles Jones.

The Kingdom of Van (Urartu), by A. H. Sayce.
Vannic/Urartian Religion, by A. H. Sayce.
   Urartu Wikipedia article. Good summary and additional, recent links.

Selected Writings of A. H. Sayce.

Selected Writings of E. A. Speiser.

Urartu in Iran, by Wolfram Kleiss at Encyclopaedia Iranica.

The Problem of Identification of the Proto-Armenians: A Critical Review, by Armen Petrosyan [from Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies, vol. 16, 2007], is available on another page of this website and may be downloaded there.

Selected Writings of Armen Petrosyan.

The Pre-history of the Armenian People, The Armenian Highlands and the Creation of the Hittite and Mitanni Empires (excerpts), by Igor M. Diakonoff.

Diakonoff, Map 2. Schematic Map of Western Asia at the Time of the Hittite Empire (ca. 1500-1200 B.C.)

The Pre-history of the Armenian People, The Hittite and the Hurrian Social Structure, The Significance of the Data on the Hittite Social Structure for the History of Armenia (excerpts), by Igor M. Diakonoff.

The Pre-history of the Armenian People, The Formation of the Armenian People (excerpts), by Igor M. Diakonoff.

Diakonoff, Map 3. Schematic Map of Western Asia at the Beginning of the 1st Millennium B.C. (9-7th Centuries B.C.).

Ассиро-вавилонские источники по истории Урарту [Assyro-Babylonian Sources for the History of Urartu], by Igor M. Diakonoff, at annals.xlegio.ru.

Evidence on the Ethnic Division of the Hurrians, by Igor M. Diakonoff.

Hurro-Urartian Borrowings in Old Armenian, by Igor M. Diakonoff.

Selected Writings of Igor M. Diakonoff.

Armenia, Subartu and Sumer (Chapters 4-5, pp. 82-180), by Martiros Kavoukjian. [Subarians, Hurrians, Urartians, Mythology]

The Social Background of Christian Caucasia, by Cyril Toumanoff.

Selected Writings of E. A. Wallis Budge.

Anatolia Page, at Livius.org.

Material at Internet Archive (archive.org) for Urartu/Urartian.

Invaluable books and articles in Russian about Urartu, the Hittites, Ancient Asia Minor and the Levant at annals.xlegio.ru.


Articles from the important Armenological journal Patma-banasirakan Handes [Historico-Philological Journal] (Erevan, Armenia), multiple topics, periods, and authors:
Hittites
Hurrians
Urartu

Wikipedia Articles:
Hurrians
Mitanni


Ancient and Medieval Libraries,
Ancient and Medieval Gardens, and
Ancient Sexuality, at rbedrosian.com.


Mythology

Hittite/Hurrian Mythology, by Christopher B. Siren.

Eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus in Ancient Mythologies (Middle Eastern Mythology section), by Robert Bedrosian.

Wikipedia article: Proto-Indo-European religion.


Art History

Urartian Art, Wikimedia Commons

Writings on Urartu [History and Art History], by Boris Piotrovsky.

The Pazyryk, Its Use and Origin, by Ulrich Schurmann. Schurmann, a renowned expert on carpets, demonstrates the likelihood that a 2,500 year old rug discovered frozen in a tomb in Asia, was made in Urartu.

Metropolitan Museum of Art (N.Y.) Heilbrunn Timeline of Art Asia Minor 2000-1000 B.C.
Metropolitan Museum of Art (N.Y.) Heilbrunn Timeline of Art Asia Minor 1000 B.C.- 1 A.D.
Metropolitan Museum of Art (N.Y.) Heilbrunn Timeline of Art Asia Minor 1 A.D - 500 A.D.


Downloads

Clicking the links below will download the material in pdf format from our website.

Hittiter und Armenier, by Peter Jensen (Strassburg, 1898), in 335 pdf pages. File size: 7 MB.

Armenien und Nordmesopotamien in altertum und gegenwart, by Ferdinand Friedrich Carl Lehmann-Haupt (Berlin, 1900), in 25 pdf pages. File size: 1.2 MB.

Materialien zur älteren Geschichte Armeniens und Mesopotamiens, by Ferdinand Friedrich Carl Lehmann-Haupt and Max von Berchem, volume 1 (Berlin, 1907), in 226 pdf pages. File size: 14.2 MB.

Explorations in Hittite Asia Minor, by H. H. von der Osten, from the American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Jan., 1927), pp. 73-176, in 105 pdf pages. File size: 12.9 MB.

Hittite Hieroglyphs I, by Ignace J. Gelb (Chicago, 1931), in 112 pdf pages. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No. 2. File size: 3.6 MB.

Hittite Hieroglyphs II, by Ignace J. Gelb (Chicago, 1935), in 61 pdf pages. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No. 14. File size: 2.5 MB.

Hittite Hieroglyphs III, by Ignace J. Gelb (Chicago, 1942), in 97 pdf pages. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No. 21. File size: 3.2 MB.

If you are interested in learning Hittite, an excellent free course is available at the website of the University of Texas at Austin: Hittite Online, prepared by Sara E. Kimball, Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum.
Syria and Egypt, from the Tell El Amarna Letters, by William M. Flinders Petrie (New York, 1898), in 198 searchable pdf pages. File size: 4.4 MB.

The Hyksos Reconsidered, by Robert M. Engberg (Chicago, 1939), in 62 pdf pages. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No. 18. File size: 2.3 MB.

Falconry (Hawking) in Hittite Lands, by Jeanny Vorys Canby, from Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 61, No. 3 (Jul., 2002), pp. 161-201, in 42 pdf pages. File size: 4.8 MB.

Hurrians and Subarians, by Ignace J. Gelb (Chicago, 1944), in 145 pdf pages. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No. 22. File size: 9.3 MB.

Ecology and Empire: The Structure of the Urartian State, by Paul E. Zimansky (Chicago, 1985), in 189 pdf pages. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No. 41. File size: 8.4 MB.

Also available:

Zimansky's article "An Urartian Ozymandias," along with other scholars' studies of Hittite and Hurrian Asia Minor, may be downloaded here: Across the Anatolian Plateau: Readings in the Archaeology of Ancient Turkey, edited by David C. Hopkins, from Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Vol. 57 (2000), in 207 pdf pages, with introduction and numerous plates. The file is large: 81.7 MB.

The Hurrians, by Gernot Wilhelm, translated from German by Jenifer Barnes, with a chapter by Diana L. Stein (Wiltshire, England, 1989), in 141 searchable pdf pages. Includes plates and map. File size: 7.2 MB.

Foreign Chariotry and Cavalry in the Armies of Tiglath-Pileser III and Sargon II, by Stephanie Dalley, from Iraq, Vol. 47 (1985), pp. 31-48, in 19 pdf pages.


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