(New York, 1890)
Book 1 Clio.
Book 2 Euterpe.
Book 3 Thaleia.
Book 4 Melpomene.
Book 5 Terpsichore.
Book 6 Erato.
Book 7 Polymnia.
Book 8 Urania.
Book 9 Calliope.
The table of chapter summaries below was created for the convenience of readers and is not part of Herodotus' text or Macaulay's translation.
1Causes of the conflict between Greeks and the East; Persian claims include the mutual wrongs done by kidnapping noblewomen. Among these noblewomen was Medea, daughter of the king of Colchis, a kingdom on the south eastern shore of the Black Sea (chapter 2).10
The Persians considered the real start of hostilities to be the capture of Troy by the Greeks (5).
Herodotus regards Croesus (B.C. 595-ca. 547), king of Lydia in Asia Minor, as a major cause of subsequent warfare between Greeks and Asians.
Here begins the story of the prideful Croesus, which starts with an account of his ancestors, and his kingdom (6-29). An example of fatal voyeurism (8 ff.)History of Lydia prior to the reign of Croesus.
Cimmerian invasion and expulsion (15-17)
20Croesus begins his reign by attacking Greek city-states in Asia Minor (26).30
Croesus' domains in Asia Minor (28).
The story of Solon the wise man from whom Croesus was expecting praise (29-33).Solon tells the irate Croesus why men other than himself deserved to be called "the happiest" (31-33).40
Croesus has a dream about how his son will die (34).
Death of Croesus' son, despite all attempts to alter fate (36-45).After two years of mourning, Croesus resumes his aggressive designs. He consults oracles before his planned war against the Persians (46-49).50Description of the sacrifices Croesus offered at Delphi60
Croesus' interest in the Greeks, leads Herodotus to a short discussion of Greek dialects and the Pelasgian language (56-58).
Herodotus describes affairs in Athens and Sparta, two states from which Croesus sought military support for his coming war against Persia; the story of Pisistratus (59-70).The state of Athens under Pisistratus (59-64).70
Early history of Sparta (65-68).
Croesus' alliance with Sparta (69-70).Croesus begins his campaign against Persia by attacking Cappadocia in Asia Minor, a Persian possession (71-72).80
Median and Persian history (73-75).
Cyrus the Persian arrives in Cappadocia for the battle; skirmishes and fighting commences (76-85).Croesus, getting bested by Cyrus, contacts his Greek allies, the Spartans (81-83).90
The Persians conquer Sardis and capture Croesus (84-85).
Cyrus' mercy toward Croesus (86-87).
Croesus urges Cyrus not to loot Sardis, since its wealth has become Cyrus' own (88-89).The Pythian prophetess at Delphi explains how Croesus could never have successfully defied what Destiny had decreed for him (91).100
Description of votive offerings made by Croesus to various shrines (92).
Description of Croesus' former kingdom of Lydia in Asia Minor; Lydian customs, including sacred prostitution (93-94).
Herodotus now begins to tell the history of Croesus' conqueror, Cyrus, and the history of his kingdom of Persia. He includes background history about Media and other Mesopotamian states preceding the rise of Persia (95 ff):
The Medes (96).The reign of Deioces in Media and the city of Ecbatana (98).
Royal protocol (99).The Medes (continued)110Median tribes (101).
The reign of Phraortes, son of Deioces, and his conquests (102).
The reign of Cyaxares, son of Phraortes; after capturing Nineveh, he learns of an invasion by nomadic Scythians; the Scythian invasion as far as Egypt; the eventual destruction of the Scythians by the Medes after a misrule of 28 years; mention of the Caucasus, Phasis, Colchis, and the Saspirs (103-106).
The story of Mandane, daughter of the Median king Astyages; his marvellous dreams, and Mandane's marriage to the Persian Cambyses (107 ff).
Astyages tries to kill his newborn grandson, Cyrus, but fate intervenes to prevent this (108-113).
The boyhood of the future King Cyrus (114 ff).120
How Cyrus' royal lineage gets revealed (116).
The cruelty of the Median king Astyages (117-119).Astyages allows Cyrus to return to his family in Persia (122).130
Medes, who had been wronged by Astyages, plot to make Cyrus their ruler (123 ff).
Cyrus agrees to lead a revolt and assembles the Persians to make war. Names of the important Persian clans (125-126).
The Persians, under Cyrus, come to Media. They attack and defeat the Medes and capture King Astyages (127-129).The Medes lose their possessions to the Persians, who now become the dominant power in western Asia.140
This is the historical background Herodotus provides about Cyrus, the Persian king who defeated Croesus of Lydia in battle, the topic of the early chapters of Book One.
Customs of the Persians (131 ff.).Persian burial customs.150
Herodotus now turns to events which unfolded after King Cyrus defeated Croesus, especially Cyrus' dealings with the Greek city states. These states had refused to help him in his battle against Croesus.
The Ionian cities (149).
Some diplomatic sabre-rattling between the Spartans and Cyrus (152 ff.).160
As Cyrus heads home, the Lydians revolt (154 ff.).Conquest and reduction of the Asiatic Greeks by the Persians.170Conquest and reduction of other rebellious states and peoples in Asia Minor: Carians, Caunians, and Lycians; their customs (171-176).180
After subduing the western lands, Cyrus moves to attack Assyria; description of the city of Babylon and some remarks on its past history (178 ff.).The temple of Belos in Babylon (181-183).190
The story of queen Semiramis (Shamiram) of Babylon (184 ff.).
Engineering feats to protect and beautify Babylon undertaken by another queen, Nitocris (185-186).
Cyrus marches against Assyria and en route punishes a river for drowning one of his sacred white horses (188-189).Cyrus captures Babylon by diverting the Euphrates (191).200
Resources and taxable wealth of Babylon (192).
Irrigation system and crops of Assyria (193).
Description of inflatable boats made of animal skins which travel down river from Armenia to Babylon with their merchandise, then are deflated and sent back to Armenia on pack animals (194).
How the Babylonians dress; their hairstyles (195).
Babylonian marriage markets (196).
Public health-care advice (197).
Burial in honey; sexual intercourse (198).
Mandatory prostitution (199).Cyrus next plans to subdue a nomadic people to the east, called the Massagetae; description of their customs, including cannabis intoxication (201-202).210
Description of the Caspian Sea and the habits of some tribes living around it (203).
Cyrus proposes marriage to the queen of the Massagetae, Tomyris, but she rejects him. (205).
Tomyris urges him not to make war, but the prideful Cyrus thinks he is invincible and continues his invasion (206-207).
Cyrus has a prophetic dream, but misinterprets it (209-210).Cyrus' initial victory over part of the Massagetae army, via a ruse (211-213).
The Persian army is destroyed by Tomyris who then finds Cyrus' corpse and punishes it (214).
Customs of the Massagetae, including sexual habits, and disposal of elderly family members by eating them (215-216).
The Second Book, Called Euterpe, 2.
1Cambyses becomes king of Persia following the death of his father Cyrus. He assembles an army to make war against Egypt, and marches west to that country.10
Herodotus uses the pending invasion as an opportunity to provide background history for Egypt. Book Two in its entirety is devoted to Egypt, a country Herodotus visited in person.
Antiquity of the Egyptians versus the Phrygians (2-3).
Egyptian priests tell Herodotus about Egyptian achievements (4).
Geography; the Nile and its cities (5-13).Agriculture (14).
The Nile; causes of annual flooding (19-27).
20Sources of the Nile (28).30
The Upper Nile (29-31).The interior of Libya; pygmies (32).40
Comparison of the Nile and Ister rivers; from Egypt to Sinope in five days (33-34).
Some unusual Egyptian customs (35-36).
Religious customs (37-48).Reverence for cows (41).50
Egyptian gods (42).
The pig (47).
Dionysos and the phallus procession (48-49).How the Greek gods derive from the Egyptian gods60
Hermes (51 ff.).
Greek and Egyptian oracles and their beginnings (54).
The first religious processions (58-64).
The festival of Isis at Bubastis and Sais (61-62).
The festivals at Heliopolis, Buto, and Papremis (63).
Sex in the temples (64).
Treatment of sacred animals including the ibis, hawk, and cat (65-66).
Embalming of sacred animals (67).
The crocodile (68-70).The hippopotamus; otters (71-72).80
The phoenix (73).
Serpents and ibises (74-76).
Egyptian customs: food, drink, song (77-79).
Practise of medicine (84).
Funerals (85-90).Worship of Perseus (91).100
Customs of the marsh-dwellers (92-95).
Egyptian boats (96).
Routes in flood times (97).
The cities of Anthylla and Archandropolis (98).
Egyptian history, beginning with King Min (Menes) (99).Other rulers, including Nitocris and Moeris (100-101).110
Sesostris' conquests in the Caucasus; the settlement of Egyptians in Colchis (103).
Colchian similarities to the Egyptians (104-105).
The pillars of Sesostris (106).
Sesostris escapes assassination (107).
Sesostris' building projects and governance (108-110).The reign of Seostris' son, Pheros (Pharoah) (111).120
The reign of Proteus and an Egyptian variant on Homer's story of Helen's abduction (112-117).
Menelaus (118-119).The reign of Rhampsinitus (121-122).130
Egyptian beliefs about the transmigration of the soul (123).
The reign of Cheops (Khufru) (124-126).
The reign of Chepren (Khafru), Cheops' brother (127).
The reign of Mycerinus, Cheops' son (129-133).
Mycerinus' pyramid; the story of Rhodopis (134-135).140
The reign of Asychis (136).
The reign of Anysis; the invasion and rule of the Ethiopian king Sabacos/Shabaka (137-140).The reign of Sethos; the invasion and defeat of King Sennacherib of Assyria (141).150
The Gods, their antiquity, and the descent of priests (142-143).
Greek and Egyptian ideas about the age of the gods (144-146).
Egypt is divided and ruled by twelve kings (147-152).The reign of Psammetichus; how the Egyptians learned Greek (153-157).160
The reign of Necos, son of Psammetichus, and his wars against Syria (158-159).
The reign of Psammis, son of Neco (160).170
The reign of Apries, son of Psammis (161 ff.).
The seven classes of Egyptians (164).
Military districts of Egypt; the army and its upkeep (165-168).
The death of Apries and his burial in the city of Sais (169).A temple lake at Sais and Egyptian mysteries (170-171).180
The reign of Amasis (Ahmose); the story of the gold foot-basin (170-172).
The nature of Amasis' rule; his past; his building projects (173-176).
The prosperity Amasis brought to Egypt, and his laws (177).
Amasis' fondness for the Greeks; the city of Naucratis (178-180).Amasis' Greek wife and the city of Kyrene (181).
Amasis makes temple offerings in Hellas; he conquers Cyprus (182).
The Third Book, Called Thaleia, 3.
1It is during the reign of the Egyptian king Amasis (Ahmose) that the Persian king Cambyses invades Egypt. Book Three describes the Persian invasion, conquest, and domination of Egypt.10
Persian versus Egyptian claims about the war's causes (1-5).
Trade in wine and water (6).
Passage through the desert (7-9).King Amasis dies and is succeeded by his son Psammenitus; the Persians defeat the Egyptians at the battle of Pelusium (10-11).
Egyptian and Persian skulls (12).
Siege and capture of Memphis; surrender of the Libyans (13).
Treatment of Psammenitus (14-15).
Treatment of the body of Amasis (16).
Expeditions planned by Cambyses, whom Herodotus considers a madman (17-18).
The Phoenicians in the Persian army refuse to attack their kinfolk in Carthage (19).
20The Persians send an embassy of spies to the Ethiopians with gifts; the Ethiopian king's remarks; Ethiopian wonders and burial customs (20-24).30
The Persian invasion of Ethiopia fails (25).
Failure of the expedition against the Ammonians (26).
Cambyses' cruelty toward the Egyptians and their customs (27-29).More on the madness of Cambyses; he murders his brother Smerdis and also his own sister-wife (30-33).40
Other bad deeds done by Cambyses; murder of his cup-bearer's son; remarks of Croesus (34-35).
How Cambyses treated Croesus for admonishing him (36).
More acts of blasphemy and madness (37-38).
The history of Polycrates of Samos and his connection with Amasis (39-43).Polycrates, the fish, and the ring (42).50
Polycrates allies with Cambyses (44).
Revolt of the crews; Samos attacked (45).
The roles of Sparta and Corinth (46-47).
The story of Periander (48-53).60
The Siege of Samos (54-56).
Fate of the rebels (57-59).Three wonders at Samos (60).70
Revolt of the Magi; usurpation of Pseudo-Smerdis (61).
News of the rebellion reaches Cambyses; his wound, speech, and death (62-66).
Reign of the Magus (67).
His detection by Otanes (68-69).Otanes and members of the Persian nobility resolve to overthrow the imposter Smerdis; Darius' leadership (71-73).80
Fate of Prexaspes (74-75).
Overthrow of the Magi (76-79).Debate on the best form of government (80-82).90
Decision of Otanes (83).
Privileges of the foremost noble Persian families (84).
Darius obtains rule of the kingdom (85-87).
Darius' wives (88).
Division of the empire into twenty satrapies (89-93).Amount of tribute collected from different parts of Darius' empire (94-97).100
Customs of the Indians (98-105).Indian sexual behavior (101).110
Gold and how it is obtained (102-105).
Productiveness of the earth's extremities (106-116).
Wealth of Arabia and its fantastic animals (107-109).Cinnamon (111).120
Remarkable sheep (113).
Ethiopian wealth (114).
The gold of northern Europe (116).
A great river in Asia (117).
A Persian noble, Intaphrenes, and many of his house are put to death for violating royal protocol (118-119).The story of Oroetes and Polycrates (120-125).130
Oroetes' punishment (126-128).
Democedes of Croton cures Darius (129-130).The history of Darius' Greek physician Democedes; his influence; his curing of Darius' daughter Atoss. (131-133).140
Democedes plots to return to Greece and gets Atossa to persuade Darius to invade Greece (134).
Persians, with Democedes as their guide, are sent to explore the coasts; Democedes escapes; the Persian expedition against Samos (135-139).The Persian expedition against Samos (140-149).150The Babylonians revolt; the recapture of Babylon by the stratagem of Zopyrus (150-158).160
Punishment of the rebels (159).Zopyrus' reward (160).
The Fourth Book, Called Melpomene, 4.
1Book Four is divided into two sections, and describes two campaigns launched by King Darius, one in the north against the nomadic Scythians, the other in the south on the northern coast of Africa against the Libyans and other peoples. In describing the campaigns, Herodotus provides the history, myths, and customs associated with both areas.10
Darius' pretext for the war against the Scythians; previous history of the Scythians; their fight with their own slaves (1-4).
Scythian traditions about their own origins (5-7).
Greek traditions about Scythian origins (8-10).Another tradition about Scythian origins, which Herodotus prefers (11-12).20
Aristeas' information (13-16).
Description of Scythia (17-20).Neighboring nations and their unusual customs: Sauromatae, Budini, Argippaei, Issedones, and Arimaspi (21-27).30
Climate of Scythia (28-31).Stories about the Hyperboreans (32-36).40
Geography of Asia: Persia, Caucasus, Middle East (37-41).Circumnavigation of Libya (42-43).50
Voyage of Scylax (44).
Origin of the names, Europe, Asia, Libya (45).
The remarkable people of Scythia (46-47).
The rivers: the Ister and its affluents (48-50).The rivers: Tyras, Hypanis, Borysthenes, Panticapes, Hypacyris, Gerrhus, Tanais (51-58).60
Religion of the Scyths: gods (59).Sacrifices (60-61).70
Worship of Mars (62-63).
Soothsayers (67-69).Oaths (70).80
Burial of the kings (71-73).
Use of cannabis (74-75).
Hatred of foreign customs; stories of Anacharsis and Scylas (76-80).Population; marvels (81-82).90
Preparations of Darius for his war against the Scythians (83-85).
Size of the Black Sea and Propontis (86).
March of Darius to the Ister River (87-92).Customs of the Thracians (93-96).100
Darius at the Ister River (97-98).
Size and shape of Scythia (99-101).Description of the surrounding nations (102-117).110
Sauromatai, Amazons (110-117).120
Consultation of the kings (118-119).Plans of the Scyths (120).130
March of Darius through Scythia, and his return to the Ister River (121-140).
The Persian and Scythian kings trade insults (126-132).Advice of Gobras to Darius (134-135).140
The Scythians mistakenly believe they have convinced Ionian troops to destroy a bridge crucial to the retreat of the Persians (137-139).The Persians retreat across the Ister River and return to the Hellespont (141-143).150
Saying of Megabazus (144).
Herodotus now turns to Darius' other campaign, this time against Egypt's former North African territory, Libya; the founding of Thera (145-149).Theraeans required by the oracle to colonise Libya—two accounts (150-155).160
Occupation of Piatea (156).
Settlement at Aziris (157).
Colonisation of Cyrene (158).
History of Cyrene from its foundation to the death of Arcesilaus III (159-164).Application of Pheretima to Aryandes (165).170
Fate of Aryandes (166).
Expedition against Barca (167).
Account of the Libyan tribes from Egypt to Lake Tritonis (168-181).More about the tribes of Northern Africa.180The three regions of Northern Libya (182-185).190
Customs of nomadic and sedentary Libyans (186-190).Contrast of eastern and western Libya (191-192).200
Account of the western tribes (193-196).
Four nations of Libya (197).
Productiveness of Libya (198-199).Account of the expedition against Barca (200-203).
Fate of the Barcaeans; death of Pheretima (204-205).
1Book Five describes the inevitable clash between the Persian Empire, expanding westward, and Greece and its allies in Asia Minor and elsewhere in the Aegean.10
The Persian general Megabazus conquers Thrace (1-2).
Thracian tribes, beliefs, marriage customs, gods, and funeral rites (3-8).
The region north of Thrace (9-10).King Darius rewards Coes and Histiaeus for their help during the Scythian campaign (11).20
The Paeonian brothers Pigres, Mantyes, their sister and the problems they brought to their own people (12-14).
Megabazus conquers the Paeonians (15).
Customs of the lake-dwelling Paeonians (16).
Submission of Macedonia; story of the ambassadors (17-21).Hellenic background of the royal family of Macedon (22).30
Recall of Histiaeus (23-24).
Darius strengthens his control over western Asia Minor with the appointment of Artaphrenes and Otanes (25).
Darius' general Otanes continues the Persian military conquests (26-27).
Troubles arise in Ionia; the previous history of Miletus (28-29).Aristagoras' expedition against Naxos (30-34).40
Message of Histiaeus (35).
Revolt of Aristagoras (36).
Fate of the tyrants (37-38).
Aristagoras goes to Sparta; recent history of Sparta (39-48).Internal political affairs in Sparta (40-48). Aristagoras fails to persuade Cleomenes to provide military help (49-54).50Herodotus describes the great Persian royal highway from Lydia to Susa (52).60
Aristagoras goes to Athens; the recent history political history of Athens, including: the murder of Hipparchus; the expulsion of Hippias; Clisthenes; attempts of Sparta; Theban and Eginetan wars (55-96).Athenian politics; Herodotus' views on Phoenician writing (60).70
Moves against the Pisistratids (65).Athenian politics; Clisthenes of Sicyon (70).80
Recall of Clisthenes the Younger (75).Athenian politics; Athenian successes (81).90
The quarrel between Epidaurus and Aegina (86).Aristogoras obtains aid from Athens (97).100
Escape of the Paeonians (98).
Attack on Sardis, which is taken and burnt (99-101).Retreat and defeat of the Greeks (102).110
Spread of the revolt to Caria and Caunus (103).
Revolt and reduction of Cyprus; Darius and Histiaeus (104-115).
Persians recover the Hellespont (116-117).120
War in Caria (118-121).Persian successes in Aeolis and Ionia (122-123).
Aristagoras decides to flee (124).
Advice of Hecataeus; flight and death of Aristagoras (125-126).
1Book Six is divided into three sections: the end of the Ionian revolt; the internal affairs of Greece; the Persian expedition to Greece.10
Histiaeus comes down to the coast (1-3).
Conspiracy discovered at Sardis (4).
Histiaeus sails to the Hellespont (5).
Miletus threatened by the Persians; the two fleets; battle of Lade (6-15).Misfortunes of the Chians (16).20
Dionysius the Phocaean commander (17).
Fall of Miletus (18).
Punishment of the Milesians (19-20).Sorrow of Athens (21).30
Fate of the Samians; seizure of Zancle (22-25).
Fate of Histiaeus (26-30).Punishment of the rebels (31-32).40
Phoenician fleet ravages the Chersonese (33).
Chersonesite kingdom of the Cimonida (34-40).Flight of Miltiades to Athens (41).50
New settlement Ionia's affairs by the Persians (42).
Expedition of Mardonius fails (43-45).
Suspected revolt of Thasos (46-47).
Envoys of Darius demand earth and water; submission of Egina and the islands generally (48-49).Cleomenes attempts to punish the Eginetans; Cleomenes' feud with Demaratus (50-51).60
The double royalty at Sparta; descent; privileges of the kings (52-59).Spartan customs (60).70
Story of Ariston (61-63).
Demaratus, deprived of his crown, flees to Persia (64-70).Leotychides made king (71).80
Fate of Leotychides (72).
Eginetans forced to give hostages (73).
Fate of Cleomenes (74-75).
Various causes assigned for his insanity (76-84).Eginetans demand back their hostages; story of Glaucus (85-86).90
War between Egina and Athens (87-93).Expedition of Datis and Artaphernes (94).100
Course of the expedition (95-99).Preparations of the Eretrians; siege and surrender of Eretria (100-101).110
Persians land at Marathon (102).
Account of Miltiades (103-104).
Pheidippides sent to Sparta; appearance of Pan (105-106).
Dream of Hippias (107).
Plataeans join the Athenians; previous connection of the two nations (108).
Division among the Athenian generals; Miltiades and Callimachus (109-110).Preparations for battle (111).120
Battle of Marathon (112-114).
Attempt to surprise Athens (115-116).
Story of Epizelus (117).
Return of the expedition to Asia (118-119).Spartans visit Marathon (120).130
Charge made against the Alcmaeonidae (121-124).
Previous history of the family; favours of Croesus (125).
Marriage of Megacles with Agariste (126-130).Descent of Pericles (131).140
Expedition of Mutiades against Paros (132-135).
Trial of Miltiades; his death (136).
His capture of Lemnos; previous history of the inhabitants (137-140).History of Lesbos concluded.
1Book Seven describes the beginning of Persia's attempts to conquer Greece. The divided and warring Greek states unite to face the threat. Throughout this book Herodotus emphasizes one of his recurring themes, that fate cannot be escaped.10
King Darius prepares to go against Greece; his sons dispute the succession (1-2).
Appointment of Xerxes; death of Darius (3-4).
Xerxes is urged to attack Greece; influence of Onomacritus (5-6).
Reduction of Egypt (7).
Xerxes assembles a council; his speech (8).
Address of Mardonius (9).Speech of Artabanus (10).20
Reply of Xerxes (11).
Xerxes' vision (12-14).
Colloquy with Artabanus (15-16).
The vision appears to Artabanus (17-18).
Preparations of Xerxes (19).Magnitude of the expedition (20-21).30
Canal of Athos; skill of the Phoenicians (22-24).
Collection of stores (25).
Xerxes' march from Critalla (26).
Story of Pythius the Lydian (27-29).Route of the army (30).40
Xerxes reaches Sardis (31).
Heralds sent off (32).
Bridge at Abydos (33-34).
Xerxes lashes the Hellespont to punish it (35).
Construction of the Bridge (36).
The army leaves Sardis (37).
Xerxes' cruel treatment of Pythius' son (38-39).Order of the march and the king's retinue (40-41).50
Route through Mysia (42).
Xerxes at Troy (43).
Xerxes views his land and sea forces (44-45).
Dialogue with Artabanus (46-52).Xerxes' address to the chief Persians (53).60
Libation and prayer of Xerxes (54).
The Iranian army crosses the Hellespont (55-56).
March from Sestos to Doriscus (58-59).How the army was counted (60).70
Nations enumerated; the Persians, their dress, and weaponry (61).
The Medes under Tigranes the Achaemenid; the Cissians and Hyrcanians (62).
The Assyrians and Chaldaeans (63).
The Bactrians and Sacas (64).
The Indians (65).
The Arians, Parthians, etc. (66).
The Caspians, Sarangians, etc. (67).
The Utians, etc. (68).
The Arabians and the Ethiopians of Libya (69).The Ethiopians of Asia (70).80
The Libyans (71).
The Paphlagonians, Phrygians, and Armenians (72-73).
The Lydians and Thracians (74-75).
The Chalybians, Cabelians, etc. (76-77).
The Moschians, Mares, Colchians, Alarodians, and Saspeirians (78-79).The Islanders (80).90
Officers and Commanders in chief (81-82).
The 10,000 Persian troops called "Immortals" (83).
Nations which furnished cavalry; the Persian nomads called Sagartians who used lassos (84-88).
Contingents to the fleet; Phoenicians; Egyptians (89).Cyprians (90).100
Cilicians and Pamphylians (91).
Lycians, Dorians, and Carians (92-93).
Ionians, Aeolians, and Hellespontians (94-95).
Commanders of the naval force (97-98).
Artemisia (99).Xerxes reviews his forces (100).110
The king consults Demaratus (101).
Demaratus' speech (102).
Xerxes' response (103).
Demaratus' opinion of the Spartans (104).
Xerxes leaves Doriscus (105).
Mascames and Boges (106-107).
Xerxes' march from Doriscus (108).
Passage of the Nestus (109).Thracian tribes along the route (110-112).120
March through Paeonia (113).
Passage of the Strymon (114).
March to Acanthus (115-116).
Death and funeral of Artachaees (117).
Preparations for feeding the army (118-119).Witty remark of Megacreon (120).130
Order of the march (121).
Passage through the Canal (122).
Course of the fleet (123).
Arrival in the gulf of Therma (124).
The camels attacked by lions (125-126).
Xerxes reaches Therma (127).
Two entrances into Thessaly (128).
Description of Thessaly; the Peneus and its tributaries (129).The way to submerge Thessaly (130).140
Stay of Xerxes in Pieria (131).
Treatment of Persian heralds (132-133).
Story of Sperthias and Bulis (134-137).
Alarm of the Greeks (138).
Patriotic conduct of the Athenians; the Athenians, the saviors of Greece (139).Warning of the oracle; the second oracle (140-142).150
Themistocles and his proposal to build a fleet (143-144).
The Greeks settle their quarrels (145).
Xerxes' treatment of the Greek spies (146-147).
Greek embassy to Argos; reply of the Argive council; Sparta's rejection (148-149).Alliance between Persia and Argos (150-152).160
Greek embassy to Sicily; ancestry and history of Gelo (153-154).
Gelo becomes king of Gela and makes Syracuse his capital (155-156).
Speech of the Greek envoys and Gelo's reply (157-158).
Indignation of Syagrus (159).Gelo's reply to Syagrus (160).170
Address of the Athenian envoy and Gelo's final answer (161-162).
Cadmus sent by Gelo to Delphi (163-164).
Intention of Gelo to help the Greeks; Carthaginians invade Sicily (165).
Defeat and disappearance of Hamilcar (166-167).
Promises of the Corcyreans; their actual conduct; embassy to Crete (168-169).Myths about the history of Minos; the greatest known slaughter of Greeks (170).180
Misfortunes of Crete (171).
Greeks occupy the defile of Tempe and the reason of their leaving the pass (172-174).
Greeks resolve to defend Artemisium and Thermopylae; description of these places (175-177).
Greeks advised to pray to the winds (178).
Advance of the Persian fleet (179).First encounter (180-182).190
Stele placed on the reef called Ant (183).
Estimate of the Persian forces (184-186).
Rivers insufficient for the army's water supply (187).
First storm; loss to the Persian fleet (188-189).Enrichment of Ameinocles (190).200
The storm ends; thanksgiving to Neptune "the savior" (191-192).
Persians advance to Apheta; Greeks take fifteen ships (193-194).
Fate of Aridolis; Xerxes' advance through Thessaly (195-196).
Temple of Laphystian Zeus; description of Malis (197-198).
Pass of Thermopylae (199-200).Position of the two armies (201).210
Enumeration of the Greek troops (202-203).
Descent of Leonidas; the three hundred (204-205).
Spartans keep the Carneia observance; panic (206-207).
Mounted spy sent by Xerxes; Xerxes questions Demaratus (208-209).First attack by the Medes; second attack by the "Immortals" (210-211).220
Alarm of Xerxes (212).
Ephialtes tells of the mountain-path (213-214).
Hydarnes sent with Ephialtes; description of the path (215-216).
Passage of the Persians (217-218).
Leonidas dismisses the allies (219).Reasons for Leonidas remaining (220-221).230
Conduct of the Thespians and Thebans; last conflict and the death of Leonidas (222-224).
Struggle over his body; remark of Dienekes (225-226).
Alpheus and Maron; inscriptions (227-228).
Story of Aristodemus (229-231).Conduct and fate of the Thebans (232-233).
Xerxes' colloquy with Demaratus (234-235).
Objection of Achaemenes; reply of Xerxes (236-237).
His treatment of Leonidas' body (238).
Gorgo and the waxed tablet (239).
1Book Eight describes events leading up to the most famous encounter in the Persian-Greek wars, the battle of Salamis. After the Persian victory at Thermopylae, Xerxes' troops appeared ready to conquer all Hellas. Much of northern Greece, including Athens, was under Persian control, and there were now pro-Persian factions in many Greek cities. At Salamis, however, the Persians were decisively defeated.10
The Greek fleet at Artemisium; its commander, Eurybiades (1-3).
Proceedings of Themistocles (4-5).
Approach of the Persians; ships are sent round Euboea (6-7).
Story of Skyllias the diver; council of the Greek captains (8-9).First battle at Artemisium (10-11).20
Terrible storm (12-13).
Second engagement; third engagement (14-18).
Stratagem of Themistocles; oracle of Bacis (19-22).Advance of the Persian fleet (23).30
Persian sailors visit Thermopylae (24-25).
Deserters from Arcadia (26).
Persians invade Phocis; wars of Phocians and Thessalians (27-31).Flight of the Phocians; the burning of their towns (32-33).40
Division of the Persian forces (34).
Attack on Delphi; discomfiture of the Persians (35-39).The Greek fleet anchors at Salamis (40).50
The Athenians quit Attica (41).
Nations composing the Greek fleet (42-48).
Proposed withdrawal to the Isthmus (49).The Persians reach Athens (50-51).60
Attack on the Acropolis (52-53).
Message to Artabanus; prodigy of the sacred olive (54-55).
Greeks resolve to sail to the Isthmus; suggestion of Mnesiphilus (56-57).
Themistocles applies to Eurybiades (58-60).Adeimantus and Themistocles (61-62).70
Determination of Eurybiades (63-64).
Omen of the cloud of dust; Persian fleet at Phalerum (65-66).
Xerxes consults his captains (67).
Speech of Artemisia; satisfaction of the king at it (68-69).Advance of the Persians (70-71).80
Greeks at the Isthmus; inhabitants of the Peloponnese (72-73).
Proceedings at Salamis; stratagem of Themistocles (74-75).
Persians occupy Psyttaleia; truth of prophecies (76-77).
Contention of the Greek captains; arrival of Aristides (78-79).His conference with Themistocles (80-81).90
Preparations for the fight (82-83).
Battle of Salamis (84-89).Where Xerxes sat to watch the battle; rout of the Persians (90-91).100
Exploits of Polycritus; conduct of Ameinias (92-93).
Story of Adeimantus' flight; exploit of Aristides (94-95).
Preparations to renew the fight; messenger sent to Persia (96-97).
Persian messengers; effect of the tidings (98-99).Mardonius' advice to Xerxes; Xerxes consults with Artemisia; Artemisia's answer (100-102).110
Proceedings of Xerxes (103-104).
Story of Hermotimus (105-106).
Persians sail to the Hellespont; proposed pursuit (107-108).
Advice of Themistocles (109).His message to the king; siege of Andros (110-111).120
Themistocles gathers contributions; line of Persian retreat (112-113).
Satisfaction for the death of Leonidas; Xerxes' march to the Hellespont; sufferings of the army (114-115).
Story of a Thracian king; passage to Abydos (116-117).
False account of Xerxes' return (118-120).Greek offerings to the gods (121-122).130
Prize of valour; honours paid to Themistocles (123-124).
Envy of Timodemus; Artabazus lays siege to Potidaea (125-127).
Affair of Timoxenus; siege raised (128-129).Persian fleet at Samos; Greek fleet at Egina (130-131).140
Embassy of Herodotus the Chian (132).
Mys consults the oracles (133-135).
Mission of Alexander, son of Amyntas, to Athens; legend of Perdiccas (136-139).Speech of Alexander (140).
Counter speech of Spartan ambassadors (141-142).
Answer of the Athenians to Alexander and to the Spartan envoys (143-144).
1Mardonius marches against Athens; advice of the Thebans; Mardonius enters Athens (1-3).10
Mission of Murychides (4-5).
Athenian embassy to Sparta; address of the Athenian envoys (6-7).
Delay of the Ephors; expedition sent out (8-10).Answer to the envoys (11).20
Mardonius, warned by the Argives, retreats (12-13).
Furthest point reached by Persians; Mardonius encamps on the Asopus (14-15).
Story related by Thersander; danger of the Phocians (16-18).
March of Peloponnesians from the Isthmus (19).First engagement; Masistius slain (20-23).30
Persian lamentations; Greeks move towards Plataea (24-25).
Marshalling of the nations; rival claims of the Tegeans and the Athenians (26-27).
Left wing accorded to the Athenians; array and numbers of the other troops (28-29).Size of Greek army (30).40
Persians marshalled by Mardonius (31-32).
The Greek soothsayer Tisamenus; his history (33-36).
Mardonius' soothsayer, Hegesistratus (37).
Persians cut off the Greek convoys (38-40).Persians hold a council of war; the oracle of Bacis (41-43).50
Greeks warned by Alexander the Macedonian (44-45).
The Spartans and Athenians change places; Mardonius insults the Spartans (46-48).
Persians block the fountain of Gargaphia (49).Movement to Oeroe (50).60
Obstinacy of Amompharetus (53-55).
Retreat of Pausanias; Mardonius' speech thereupon (56-58).
Persians pursue the Greeks (59).Battle of Plataea; death of Mardonius (60-65).70
Conduct of Artabazus (66).
Boeotians' struggle with Athenians; general flight; second battle at the entrenched camp (67-70).Prowess of the contending parties; conduct of Callicrates (71-72).80
Sophanes, a most distinguished Athenian, his conduct and fate (73-75).
A lady's appeal to Pausanias; arrival of Mantineans and Eleans (76-77).
Evil counsel of Lampon (78-79).Disposal of the booty; portions set apart for the gods and distribution of the remainder (80-81).90
A Persian and a Spartan supper; wonders of the battle-field (82-83).
Clandestine burial of Mardonius; graves of the slain (84-85).
Siege of Thebes (86-88).
Flight of Artabazus (89).Leotychides invited by the Samians (90-91).100
Deiphonus and Evenius (92-95).
Greeks proceed to Samos; the Persian army at Mycale (96).
Battle of Mycale (97-103).Fate of the Persians; the palm of bravery assigned to the Athenians (104-105).110
The Greeks sail to the Hellespont and the Persians retreat to Sardis (106-107).
Intrigues of Xerxes; the fate of Masistes (108-113).Athenians lay siege to Sestos; the fate of Oiobazus; the punishment of Artayctes (114-120).120Athenians return, bringing with them the shore-cables of Xerxes' bridges (121).
Artembares and Cyrus (122).